Abstract. The antidiuretic effect and pharmacokinetics of 10 to 20 μg of intranasal (IN) and 200 to 400 μg of oral (po) 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) were studied in 10 paediatric diabetes insipidus patients. A significant increase in urine osmolality was obtained with all doses, maximum within 2 h and still present at 8 h. At 12 h after administration, the ratio urine osmolality/plasma osmolality was above 1 only after 20 μg intranasally and 400 μg perorally. The free water clearance decreased rapidly with all doses and was similar in magnitude and duration for both the intranasal and peroral routes of administration and remained negative for more than 8 h. The maximum plasma concentrations of DDAVP, measured with a specific and sensitive RIA method, was dose-dependent and there was not significant difference in time until maximum concentration was obtained or in plasma half-life between the two routes of administration. The ratio established, 1:20, by calculating the area under the curve showed a bio-equivalence between 10 μg IN and 200 μg po and between 20 μg IN and 400 μg po of DDAVP. This work further emphasized the effectiveness of the oral route and the rapidity of absorption. By continuous monitoring of DDAVP plasma values we have demonstrated that peak values were reached within one hour after administration. This study demonstrates that the doses needed to treat diabetes insipidus patients by the oral route will be approximately 20 times greater than by the nasal route.
Anne Fjellestad-Paulsen, Nadia Tubiana-Rufi, Alan Harris, and Paul Czernichow
Jacques Beltrand, Najiba Lahlou, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Guy Sebag, Sofia Leka, Michel Polak, Nadia Tubiana-Rufi, Didier Lacombe, Marc de Kerdanet, Frederic Huet, Jean-Jacques Robert, Didier Chevenne, Pierre Gressens, and Claire Lévy-Marchal
Recently, in a 4-month proof-of-concept trial, beneficial metabolic effects were reported in non-diabetic children with Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL); this information prompted us to hypothesize that long-term leptin-replacement therapy might improve or reverse the early complications of the disease in these patients.
Patients and methods
A 28-month trial was implemented in eight patients. Efficacy assessment was based on a decrease in serum triglyceride concentrations, and/or a decrease in liver volume and/or an increase in insulin sensitivity of at least 30% respectively. The response was defined as follows: total (3/3 positive criteria), partial (1 or 2/3), or negative (0/3). Anti-leptin antibodies were measured with a radiobinding assay, and a neutralizing effect was assessed in primary cultures of embryonic neurons incubated with an apoptotic agent (N-methyl-d-aspartate) and the patient serum, with or without leptin.
A negative or partial response to treatment was observed in five of eight patients even when leptin dosages were increased. A displaceable leptin binding was detectable in all patients after 2 months of treatment. At 28 months, binding was higher in the patients with a negative response than in the total responders, and it paralleled both the increase in leptin dosage and serum leptin concentrations. Co-incubation of embryonic neurons with serum from two patients with a negative response inhibited the neuroprotective effect of leptin.
Under leptin therapy, patients with BSCL may develop a resistance to leptin, which could be partly of immunological origin, blunting the previously reported beneficial effects.
Dinane Samara-Boustani, Ana Colmenares, Caroline Elie, Myriam Dabbas, Jacques Beltrand, Virgile Caron, Claude Ricour, Paul Jacquin, Nadia Tubiana-Rufi, Claire Levy-Marchal, Christine Delcroix, Delphine Martin, Lila Benadjaoud, Evelyne Jacqz Aigrain, Christine Trivin, Kathleen Laborde, Elisabeth Thibaud, Jean-Jacques Robert, and Michel Polak
To compare the pubertal development, the hormonal profiles and the prevalence of hirsutism and menstrual disorders in obese adolescent girls and adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Data were collected from 96 obese adolescent girls and 78 adolescent girls with T1DM at Tanner stage IV or V, whose ages ranged between 11.9 and 17.9 years.
High prevalence of hirsutism and menstrual disorder was found in the obese adolescent girls (36.5 and 42% respectively) and the adolescent girls with T1DM (21 and 44% respectively). The obese girls were significantly younger at pubarche, thelarche and menarche than the girls with T1DM. Hirsutism in the obese girls and those with T1DM was associated with hyperandrogenaemia and a raised free androgen index (FAI). When the cause of the raised FAI was investigated in both the groups of girls with hirsutism, the raised FAI in the obese girls was due to low serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. In contrast, the raised FAI of the girls with T1DM and hirsutism was due to hyperandrogenaemia. Menstrual disorders in the T1DM girls were associated also with hyperandrogenaemia unlike obese girls.
Hirsutism and menstrual disorders are common in obese adolescent girls and adolescent girls with T1DM. Although hyperandrogenaemia is present in both groups of girls, the androgenic profiles of the two groups differ. The hyperandrogenaemia in the obese girls is primarily due to their decreased serum SHBG levels, whereas the hyperandrogenaemia in the girls with T1DM is due to their increased androgen production.