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Naoki Yasuda and Monte A. Greer

Abstract.

CRF activity from various sources (rat hypothalamic median eminence and posterior pituitary, bovine hypophyseal stalk, and human peripheral blood) was adsorbed to finely ground glass (Quso, Corning). CRF activity was eluted from the glass with 30% acetone. Up to 85% of the total CRF activity originally present in the crude CRF preparation was adsorbed to Quso or Corning glass; up to 25% of the original total CRF activity was recovered from the glass with 30% acetone. We conclude that CRF is among the hormones adsorbed by glass.

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Naoki Yasuda and Monte A. Greer

ABSTRACT

Corticotrophin-releasing activity of rat or human peripheral blood was examined with a sensitive in vitro CRF bioassay, using cultured rat adenohypophyseal cells and ACTH measurement by radioimmunoassay. A dose-related ACTH secretion into the medium occurred in response to plasma or serum obtained from unstressed rats or humans. The minimum effective dose was 2.5 μl (0.1% of the medium concentration). No concomitant release of TSH occurred, indicating that cellular destruction was not the source of ACTH in the medium. As previously found with hypothalamic extract, 50% of the maximum ACTH secretion produced by a given quantity of plasma occurred within 1–5 min. Fifty per cent of CRF activity was retained after plasma was boiled for 5 min. CRF activity of serum was not different in intact, 1–10 min. ether-stressed, adrenalectomized, hypophysectomized or dexamethasone-treated rats. There was no significant difference in CRF activity between serum from intact rats and those with complete forebrain removal and hypophysectomy, indicating that serum CRF originates from a source outside the forebrain or pituitary. Because of the lack of correlation of blood CRF activity with conditions in which there are marked differences in in vivo ACTH concentration, it is possible that the blood CRF activity we measure is non-specific.

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Hitoshi Fukuda and Monte A. Greer

ABSTRACT

We have independently varied the degree of iodination and of iodothyronine formation over a wide range by acutely administering various doses of perchlorate and/or methimazole to severely iodine-deficient rats 30 min before giving 131I with graded quantities (1–100 μg of 127I). Thyroids were removed 4 h later and the soluble protein analyzed for labelled iodoamino acid composition and with sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Since the total thyroid iodine content before administering 127I was less than 1 μg, calculation of the degree of iodination and iodothyronine content of the labelled Tgb could be made from the known specificity of the injected labelled iodide. Newly organified iodine ranged from < 0.1 to 1.4 μg/thyroid and labelled iodothyronines from < 5 to 962 pmoles/thyroid. Both the degree of iodination and iodothyronine content varied directly with Tgb stability in the absence of inhibitors. But when Tgb iodination was kept constant, Tgb stability at pH 10.1 varied directly with iodothyronine content. When iodothyronine content was kept constant, Tgb stability was independent of the degree of iodination. Correlation of stability with iodothyronine content was highly significant (r = 0.79, P < 0.001) but not of stability with iodine content (r = 0.49, P > 0.05). We conclude that the primary determinant of Tgb stability in mild alkali is the iodothyronine content and not the degree of iodination of the protein. The increased Tgb stability may be induced by coupling between iodotyrosil residues of different 12 S subunits rather than between residues of the same 12 S subunit.

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Hugo Studer and Monte A. Greer

ABSTRACT

An extensive study of the temporal sequence of changes in thyroid function after initiation of a low iodine regimen has been made in rats. Variables measured include: thyroid weight, 131I uptake, monoiodotyrosine/diiodotyrosine (MIT/DIT) and triiodothyronine/thyroxine (T3/T4) ratios, iodide clearance, and 127I content. Also measured were protein-bound iodine (PBI), inorganic iodide and thyrotrophin (TSH) levels in the serum. Significant thyroid hypertrophy was produced during the first week and before there was a fall in serum PBI. Temporally related to the appearance of goiter were a rise in 131I uptake, MIT/DIT ratio and iodide clearance and a fall in thyroidal 127I concentration. In contrast, a fall in total thyroidal 127I appeared later and was closely correlated with a decline in serum PBI concentration and a rise in the thyroidal T3/T4 ratio.

Manipulations such as hypophysectomy, injections of iodide, thyroxine or TSH, and refeeding a high iodine diet gave results consistent with the view that changes produced by iodine deficiency involve both autonomous and TSH-dependent thyroidal mechanisms. Although elevated serum TSH levels could not be demonstrated until after the first week of the iodine-deficient regimen, the total evidence of these studies permits the conclusion that increased TSH secretion is the most important factor in producing the thyroidal response to iodine deficiency. It is shown that homeostatic mechanisms allow maintenance of a normal level of circulating thyroid hormone in an iodine-deficient state until the body iodine pool becomes too severely depleted to supply adequate iodide substrate to the thyroid. The changes observed closely resemble those found in human iodine-deficient goiters. Although the large goiters produced after several weeks of an iodine-deficient regimen were hyperplastic, they could readily be converted to typical colloid goiters by feeding a high iodine diet for a few days.

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Xiangbing Wang, Noriyuki Sato, Monte A. Greer, Susan E. Greer and Staci McAdams

Abstract.

The mechanism by which 30% medium hyposmolarity induces PRL secretion by GH4C1 cells was compared with that induced by 100 nmol/l TRH or 30 mmol/l K+. Removing medium Ca2+, blocking Ca2+ channels with 50 μmol/l verapamil, or inhibiting calmodulin activation with 20 μmol/l trifluoperazine, 10 μmol/l chlorpromazine or 10 μmol/l pimozide almost completely blocked hyposmolarity-induced secretion. The smooth muscle relaxant, W-7, which is believed relatively specific in inhibiting the Ca2+-calmodulin interaction, depressed hyposmolarity-induced PRL secretion in a dose-dependent manner (r = −0.991, p<0.01 ). The above drugs also blocked or decreased high K+-induced secretion, but had much less effect on TRH-induced secretion. Secretion induced by TRH, hyposmolarity, or high K+ was optimal at pH 7.3-7.65 and was significantly depressed at pH 6.0 or 8.0, indicating that release of hormone induced by all 3 stimuli is due to an active cell process requiring a physiologic extracellular pH and is not produced by nonspecific cell toxicity. The data suggest hyposmolarity and high K+ may share some similarities in their mechanism of stimulating secretion, which is different from that of TRH.

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Naoki Yasuda, Yuko Yasuda, Toru Aizawa, Sakae Maruta and Monte A. Greer

Abstract. The biological activity of partially purified bovine hypothalamic CRF (corticotrophin-relasing factor) was compared to those of synthetic CRFs (ovine, rat) sauvagine and vasopressin in vivo and in vitro. ACTHprimed hypophysectomized rats with heterotopically transplanted pituitaries and medial basal hypothalamic ablation (H-T + MBHA), and intact rats pre-treated with chlorpromazine, morphine and Nembutal (C-M-N) were used for in vivo CRF assays. Perifused rat adenohypophyseal fragments were employed for in vitro studies. CRF-A (void volume fractions, 'big' CRF) and CRF-B (Kav = 0.583) purified from bovine hypophyseal stalk, synthetic ovine and rat CRF, and sauvagine all induced significant stimulation of ACTH and/or corticosterone secretion in these systems. Synthetic ovine and rat CRF and sauvagine showed comparable CRF potency. The CRF dose-response slopes for bovine CRF were somewhat steeper than those for ovine CRF or sauvagine in the in vitro system. Vasopressin had the least steep dose-response slope. Intravenous bolus administration of ovine CRF caused a more prolonged (>20 min) elevation of plasma ACTH compared to a relatively short duration after bovine CRF-A. These data suggest that bovine hypothalamus contains substance(s) which exhibits different CRF characteristics from those of ovine CRF.