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Fabio Bioletto, Marco Barale, Mirko Parasiliti-Caprino, Nunzia Prencipe, Alessandro Maria Berton, Massimo Procopio, Desirée Deandreis, and Ezio Ghigo

Background. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an autonomous hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone by one or more parathyroid glands. Preoperative localization of the affected gland(s) is of key importance in order to allow minimally invasive surgery. At the moment, 11C-Methionine and 18F-Fluorocholine PET studies appear to be among the most promising second-line localization techniques; their comparative diagnostic performance, however, is still unknown.

Methods. PubMed/Medline and Embase databases were searched up to October 2020 for studies estimating the diagnostic accuracy of 11C-Methionine PET or 18F-Fluorocholine PET for parathyroid localization in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Pooled sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for each tracer on a “per-lesion” basis and then compared using a random-effect model subgroup analysis.

Results. Twenty-two studies were finally considered in the meta-analysis. Among these, 8 evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of 11C-Methionine and 14 that of 18F-Fluorocholine. No study directly comparing the two tracers was found. The pooled sensitivity of 18F-Fluorocholine was higher than that of 11C-Methionine (92% vs 80%, p < 0.01), while the positive predictive value was similar (95% vs 94%, p = 0.99). These findings were confirmed in multivariable meta-regression models, demonstrating their apparent independence from other possible predictors or confounders at a study level.

Conclusion. This was the first meta-analysis that specifically compared the diagnostic accuracy of 11C-Methionine and 18F-Fluorocholine PET for parathyroid localization in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Our results suggested a superior performance of 18F-Fluorocholine in terms of sensitivity, while the two tracers had comparable accuracy in terms of positive predictive value.

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Barbara Lucatello, Andrea Benso, Isabella Tabaro, Elena Capello, Mirko Parasiliti Caprino, Lisa Marafetti, Denis Rossato, Salvatore E Oleandri, Ezio Ghigo, and Mauro Maccario


In most cases of primary aldosteronism (PA), an adrenal aldosterone-secreting tumor cannot be reasonably proven, so these patients undergo medical treatment. Controversial data exist about the evolution of PA after medical therapy: long-term treatment with mineralocorticoid antagonists has been reported to normalize aldosterone levels but other authors failed to find remission of mineralocorticoid hypersecretion. Thus, we planned to retest aldosterone secretion in patients with medically treated PA diagnosed at least 3 years before.


Retrospective, cross-sectional study.


The same workup for PA as at diagnosis (basal aldosterone to renin activity ratio (ARR) and aldosterone suppression test) was performed after stopping interfering drugs and low-salt diet, in 34 subjects with PA diagnosed between 3 and 15 years earlier, by case finding from subgroups of hypertensive patients at high risk for PA. Criteria for persistence of PA were the same as at diagnosis (ARR (pg/ml per ng per ml per h) >400, aldosterone >150 pg/ml basally, and >100 pg/ml after saline infusion) or less restrictive.


PA was not confirmed in 26 (76%) of the patients and also not in 20 (59%) using the least restrictive criteria suggested by international guidelines. Unconfirmed PA was positively associated with female sex, higher potassium levels, longer duration of hypertension, and follow-up, but not with adrenal mass, aldosterone levels at diagnosis, and treatment with mineralocorticoid antagonists.


This study suggests that mineralocorticoid hyperfunction in patients with PA after medical treatment may decline spontaneously. Higher potassium concentration and duration of treatment seem to increase the probability of this event.