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Daniel F de Carvalho, Mirela C Miranda, Larissa G Gomes, Guiomar Madureira, José A M Marcondes, Ana Elisa C Billerbeck, Andresa S Rodrigues, Paula F Presti, Hilton Kuperman, Durval Damiani, Berenice B Mendonca, and Tania A S S Bachega


Most congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients carry CYP21A2 mutations derived from conversion events involving the pseudogene, and the remaining carry new mutations.


To review causal mutations and genotype–phenotype correlation in 480 Brazilian patients.


DNA was extracted from 158 salt-wasters (SWs), 116 simple virilizing (SV), and 206 nonclassical (NC) patients. Fourteen point mutations were screened by allele-specific PCR, large rearrangements by Southern blotting/MLPA, and sequencing was performed in those with incomplete genotype. The gene founder effect was analyzed by microsatellite studies. Patients were divided into six genotypes (Null; A: <2%; B: 3–7%; C: >20% of residual enzymatic activity (EA); D: unknown EA; E: incomplete genotype).


Targeted methodologies defined genotype in 87.6% of classical and in 80% of NC patients and the addition of sequencing in 100 and 83.5%, respectively. The most frequent mutations were p.V281L (26.6% of alleles), IVS2-13A/C>G (21.1%), and p.I172N (7.5%); seven rare mutations and one novel mutation (p.E351V) were identified. Gene founder effect was observed in all but one (p.W19X) mutation. Null, A, B, and C genotypes correlated with SW (88%), SW (70%), SV (98%), and NC forms (100%), respectively. In group D, the p.E351V mutation correlated with classical form and group E comprised exclusively NC-patients. ACTH-stimulated 17OHP level of 44.3ng/mL was the best cutoff to identify NC-patients carrying severe mutations.


We identified a good genotype–phenotype correlation in CAH, providing useful data regarding prediction of disease’s severity; moreover, we suggest that ACTH-stimulated 17OHP levels could predict carrier status for severe mutations. Sequencing is essential to optimize molecular diagnosis in Brazilian CAH patients.

Open access

Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abalı, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E. Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J. van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone

Objective: Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.

Design: This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.

Methods: Data was collected from 461 patients aged 0-18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 – 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was analyzed from 4174 patient visits.

Results: The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0 – 14.5) mg/ m2/ day at age 1 - 8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6 - 17.4) mg/ m2/ day at age 12-18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0-8 years (p<0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8-18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.

Conclusions: Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.