Tao Liu, Wei-Qing Chen, Sean P David, Rachel F Tyndale, Hui Wang, Yu-Ming Chen, Xue-Qing Yu, Wei Chen, Qian Zhou and Wen-Hua Ling
To explore the interactions between smoking and CYP2A6 genotypes on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as potential pathways for smoking in causing T2DM.
A total of 1344 smokers with complete data from a community-based T2DM survey in Guangzhou and Zhuhai of China from July 2006 to June 2007 were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about socio-demographic status and daily cigarette consumption. Serum glucose, insulin, and cotinine were measured after an overnight fast. Subjects were genotyped for CYP2A6 and classified, according to genotype, into normal, intermediate, slow, or poor nicotine metabolizers based on prior knowledge of CYP2A6 allele associations with nicotine C-oxidation rate. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist-to-hip ratio ≥0.90 for males or ≥0.85 for females. Type 2 diabetic patients (n=154) were diagnosed according to WHO 1999 criteria. Chi-square tests, multivariate logistic regression models, and a structural equation model were used in this study.
Multivariate analysis indicated that, compared with light smoking, heavy smoking significantly increased the risk of T2DM (odds ratio (OR)=1.75, 95% CI=1.01–3.05). There were significant interactions between heavy smoking and slow CYP2A6 (OR=5.12, 95% CI=1.08–24.23) and poor CYP2A6 metabolizer genotypes (OR=8.54, 95% CI=1.28–57.02) on T2DM. Structural equation modeling indicated that CYP2A6 moderation of smoking quantity risk on T2DM was mediated by the effects on serum cotinine, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion.
Heavy smoking was significantly associated with T2DM, and this association was moderated by CYP2A6 genotype and mediated by serum cotinine, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion.
Xiaoyan Guo, Shu Zhang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Hongmei Wu, Huanmin Du, Hongbin Shi, Chongjin Wang, Yang Xia, Xing Liu, Chunlei Li, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Guowei Huang, Qiyu Jia, Honglin Zhao, Kun Song and Kaijun Niu
It is widely known that inflammation is related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have shown a direct relationship between the immune system and T2D using a reliable biomarker. Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an easy-to-analyze inflammation biomarker, but few studies have assessed the relationship between NLR and T2D. In order to evaluate how NLR is related to T2D, we designed a large-scale cross-sectional and prospective cohort study in an adult population.
Subjects and methods
Participants were recruited from the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n=87 686) and a prospective (n=38 074) assessment were performed. Participants without a history of T2D were followed up for ∼6 years (with a median follow-up of 2.7 years). Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the quintiles of NLR and T2D (covariates: age, sex, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes).
The prevalence and incidence of T2D were 4.9% and 6.8/1000 person-years respectively. The adjusted odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% CI) of the highest NLR quintile were 1.34 (1.21, 1.49) and 1.39 (1.09, 1.78) (both P for trend <0.01) respectively as compared to the lowest quintile of NLR. Leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts do not significantly predict the eventual development of T2D.
The present study demonstrates that NLR is related to the prevalence and incidence of T2D, and it suggests that NLR may be an efficient and accurate prognostic biomarker for T2D.
Shunming Zhang, Yeqing Gu, Liu Wang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Min Lu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Honglei Wang, Hongbin Shi, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Huiling Xiang and Kaijun Niu
Background and Aims
The protective effect of garlic against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in animal studies. However, in humans, the association between garlic consumption and NAFLD is unclear. The study sought to explore the association between habitual raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed NAFLD among Chinese adults.
We performed a study of 11,326 men and 12,780 women aged 20–90 years. Habitual food intake was assessed using a validated and standardized 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the liver ultrasonography and self-reported alcohol intake. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of raw garlic intake with newly diagnosed NAFLD.
The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 28.9% in men and 10.1% in women, respectively. In men, the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having NAFLD across increasing frequency of raw garlic intake were 1.00 (reference) for <1 time/week, 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) for 1–3 times/week, 0.66 (0.54, 0.80) for 4–6 times/week, and 0.71 (0.55, 0.90) for ≥7 times/week (P for trend <0.0001). The odds ratio for NAFLD associated with each 1 g of raw garlic/1000 kcal was 0.93 (0.90, 0.97) in men. In women, no significant association between raw garlic intake and NAFLD was identified. These associations between raw garlic intake and NAFLD were consistent in several sensitivity analyses.
Frequent consumption of raw garlic is inversely associated with NAFLD in Chinese men. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
Zhaoyun Zhang, Qin Li, Wenqiang He, Huijia Qiu, Hongying Ye, Yongfei Wang, Ming Shen, Min He, Yifei Yu, Xuefei Shou, Chuanxin Huang, Huan Yu, Guoqian Huang, Weijun Tang, Daoying Geng, Chaowei Fu, Congjin Liu, Zengyi Ma, Zhao Ye, Qilin Zhang, Yichao Zhang, Yue Shen, Yeping Yang, Meng Wang, Xingdang Liu, Yun Lu, Renming Hu, Ying Mao, Liangfu Zhou, Yiming Li, Shiqi Li, Nicholas A Tritos and Yao Zhao
Chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) often leads to systemic complications. The reversibility of these complications after GH resolution is not fully understood.
To investigate when and to what extent will the comorbidities be ameliorated.
We conducted a prospective study comprising 24 patients with acromegaly, who achieved remission after transsphenoidal surgery. The dynamic changes of endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, sleep, bone and morphology parameters were evaluated at enrollment and 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after surgery.
Random GH dropped by 98.4% at the first day postoperatively. IGF-I index dropped by 50% and 64% at 1 week and 1 month respectively and remained unchanged onwards. Glucose metabolism improved significantly at 1 week and stabilized at 1 month. Testosterone in male patients recovered to normal range since 1 month. Systolic blood pressures dropped markedly at 3 months while diastolic blood pressures fell mildly at later visits. Abnormal lung function showed no improvement. The decrease of bone formation and resorption markers occurred at 1 week and 3 months, respectively. At 1 month, the tongue area declined while the airway volume increased significantly, accompanied with improved obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Extremities, lips and nasal ala became smaller since 1 week. Liver, kidney and spleen volumes declined by 6.4, 15.9, 9.2%, respectively at 1 month. The volumes of pancreas and adrenal showed no change.
The rapid resolution of excessive GH led to the reversible changes of systemic comorbidities in a time-dependent and organ-specific manner.