Chang-Hsien Lu, Kuan-Der Lee, Ping-Tsung Chen, Chih-Cheng Chen, Feng-Che Kuan, Cih-En Huang, Miao-Fen Chen and Min-Chi Chen
Most studies on second primary malignancies (SPMs) after primary thyroid cancer were conducted in USA or Europe. The discrepancy between SPMs in these studies could be attributed to geographical and ethnic heterogeneity. Thus, there is a clear need for another large-scale epidemiological study, particularly in Asian countries, to define the incidence and risk of SPMs in thyroid cancer survivors.
A population-based study was conducted using the nation-wide database from Taiwan Cancer Registry between 1979 and 2006.
We quantified standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and cumulative incidence of SPMs among 19 068 individuals (4205 males and 14 863 females) with primary thyroid cancer.
A total of 644 cases (3.38%) developed at least a SPM during 134 678 person-years of follow-up. The risk for subsequent SPMs was significantly greater than that of the general population (SIR=1.33, 95% CI 1.23–1.44). There was a greater risk of developing major salivary glands, nasopharyngeal, lung, thymus, breast (females), bladder, and brain cancers, and leukemia and lymphoma. We observed that the risk was highest within the first 5 years of diagnosis of thyroid cancer (SIR=5.29, 1.68, and 0.68 for ≦5, 5–10, and >10 respectively) and in the younger patients (SIR=1.81 vs 1.61 for <50 and ≧50 respectively). The median overall survival for primary thyroid cancer patients was 23.28 years, but it was only 4.73 years for those who developed SPMs.
Thyroid cancer is associated with a 33% risk increment of SPMs, which had a negative impact on survival. There are sites of SPMs in the Asian population that are distinctive from those in the Western population, suggesting that other genetic predisposition or environmental factors may play a role.
Shunming Zhang, Yeqing Gu, Liu Wang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Min Lu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Honglei Wang, Hongbin Shi, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Huiling Xiang and Kaijun Niu
Background and Aims
The protective effect of garlic against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in animal studies. However, in humans, the association between garlic consumption and NAFLD is unclear. The study sought to explore the association between habitual raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed NAFLD among Chinese adults.
We performed a study of 11,326 men and 12,780 women aged 20–90 years. Habitual food intake was assessed using a validated and standardized 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the liver ultrasonography and self-reported alcohol intake. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of raw garlic intake with newly diagnosed NAFLD.
The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 28.9% in men and 10.1% in women, respectively. In men, the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having NAFLD across increasing frequency of raw garlic intake were 1.00 (reference) for <1 time/week, 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) for 1–3 times/week, 0.66 (0.54, 0.80) for 4–6 times/week, and 0.71 (0.55, 0.90) for ≥7 times/week (P for trend <0.0001). The odds ratio for NAFLD associated with each 1 g of raw garlic/1000 kcal was 0.93 (0.90, 0.97) in men. In women, no significant association between raw garlic intake and NAFLD was identified. These associations between raw garlic intake and NAFLD were consistent in several sensitivity analyses.
Frequent consumption of raw garlic is inversely associated with NAFLD in Chinese men. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
Zhaoyun Zhang, Qin Li, Wenqiang He, Huijia Qiu, Hongying Ye, Yongfei Wang, Ming Shen, Min He, Yifei Yu, Xuefei Shou, Chuanxin Huang, Huan Yu, Guoqian Huang, Weijun Tang, Daoying Geng, Chaowei Fu, Congjin Liu, Zengyi Ma, Zhao Ye, Qilin Zhang, Yichao Zhang, Yue Shen, Yeping Yang, Meng Wang, Xingdang Liu, Yun Lu, Renming Hu, Ying Mao, Liangfu Zhou, Yiming Li, Shiqi Li, Nicholas A Tritos and Yao Zhao
Chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) often leads to systemic complications. The reversibility of these complications after GH resolution is not fully understood.
To investigate when and to what extent will the comorbidities be ameliorated.
We conducted a prospective study comprising 24 patients with acromegaly, who achieved remission after transsphenoidal surgery. The dynamic changes of endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, sleep, bone and morphology parameters were evaluated at enrollment and 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after surgery.
Random GH dropped by 98.4% at the first day postoperatively. IGF-I index dropped by 50% and 64% at 1 week and 1 month respectively and remained unchanged onwards. Glucose metabolism improved significantly at 1 week and stabilized at 1 month. Testosterone in male patients recovered to normal range since 1 month. Systolic blood pressures dropped markedly at 3 months while diastolic blood pressures fell mildly at later visits. Abnormal lung function showed no improvement. The decrease of bone formation and resorption markers occurred at 1 week and 3 months, respectively. At 1 month, the tongue area declined while the airway volume increased significantly, accompanied with improved obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Extremities, lips and nasal ala became smaller since 1 week. Liver, kidney and spleen volumes declined by 6.4, 15.9, 9.2%, respectively at 1 month. The volumes of pancreas and adrenal showed no change.
The rapid resolution of excessive GH led to the reversible changes of systemic comorbidities in a time-dependent and organ-specific manner.