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Free access

Alix Besançon, Jacques Beltrand, Isabelle Le Gac, Dominique Luton, and Michel Polak

Objective

Hyperthyroidism in neonates born to mothers with Graves' disease (GD) can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but is still overlooked by clinicians. Management of neonatal hyperthyroidism would be improved by a better understanding of the predictive factors involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of thyroid function and clinical outcomes during the first postnatal month in babies born to mothers with GD.

Design

Prospective observational study.

Methods

Sixty-eight neonates born to mothers with GD were managed from birth and divided into three groups based on thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) and anti-thyroid drug (ATD) status in the mother: TRAb−ve/ATD−ve, n=27; TRAb−ve/ATD+ ve, n=8; and TRAb+ve/ATD+ve, n=33. The main outcome measures were clinical examination, thyroid function tests (TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine, and TRAb), echocardiography, thyroid ultrasonography, and bone maturation assessment.

Results

None of the infants born to TRAb−ve mothers with GD developed neonatal hyperthyroidism. Of the 33 TRAb+ve/ATD+ve neonates, 24 (72.7%) had positive TRAb on cord blood assays, and seven of these developed neonatal hyperthyroidism. FT4 elevation between days 3 and 7 but not at birth was predictive of the development of hyperthyroidism.

Conclusions

TRAb status should be checked in the third trimester in mothers with GD and on cord blood in their neonates; if positive, it indicates a high risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism. FT4 measurement at birth should be repeated between days 3 and 5 (and by day 7 at the latest); rapid FT4 elevation during the first postnatal week is predictive of hyperthyroidism and warrants ATD therapy.

Open access

Michel Polak, Jo Blair, Primoz Kotnik, Effie Pournara, Birgitte Tønnes Pedersen, and Tilman R Rohrer

Objective

To investigate the effect of age at growth hormone (GH) treatment start on near adult height (NAH) in children with isolated GH deficiency (GHD).

Design

NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (Nbib960128), a non-interventional, multicentre study, evaluates the long-term effectiveness and safety of Norditropin® (somatropin) (Novo Nordisk A/S) in the real-life clinical setting.

Methods

Patients (n = 172) treated to NAH (height at ≥18 years, or height velocity <2 cm/year at ≥16 (boys) or ≥15 (girls) years) were grouped by age (years) at treatment start (early (girls, <8; boys, <9), intermediate (girls, 8–10; boys, 9–11) or late (girls, >10; boys, >11)) and GHD severity (<3 ng/mL or 3 to ≤10 ng/mL). Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of age at treatment start (as a categorical and continuous variable) on NAH standard deviation score (SDS).

Results

Age at treatment start had a marked effect on NAH SDS; NAH SDS achieved by patients starting treatment early (n = 40 (boys, 70.0%); least squares mean (standard error) −0.76 (0.14)) exceeded that achieved by those starting later (intermediate, n = 42 (boys, 57.1%); −1.14 (0.15); late, n = 90 (boys, 68.9%); −1.21 (0.10)). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between NAH SDS and age at treatment start (P < 0.0242), baseline height SDS (HSDS) (P < 0.0001), target HSDS (P < 0.0001), and GHD severity (P = 0.0012). Most (78.5%) patients achieved a normal NAH irrespective of age at treatment start.

Conclusions

Early initiation of GH treatment in children with isolated GHD improves their chance of achieving their genetic height potential.

Open access

Peter Bang, Joachim Woelfle, Valerie Perrot, Caroline Sert, and Michel Polak

Objective

The European Increlex® Growth Forum Database Registry monitors the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF1; mecasermin, Increlex®) therapy in patients with severe primary IGF1 deficiency (SPIGFD). We present data from patients with and without a reported genetic diagnosis of Laron syndrome (LS).

Design

Ongoing, open-label, observational registry (NCT00903110).

Methods

Children and adolescents receiving rhIGF1 therapy from 10 European countries were enrolled in 2008–2017 (n = 242). The treatment-naïve/prepubertal (NPP) cohort (n = 138) was divided into subgroups based on reported genetic diagnosis of LS (n = 21) or non-LS (n = 117). Multivariate analysis of the NPP-non-LS subgroup was conducted to identify factors predictive of growth response (first-year-height standard deviation score (SDS) gain ≥ 0.3). Assessments included change in height and weight over 5 years and adverse events (AEs).

Results

Height SDS gain from baseline was greater in the NPP-LS than the NPP-non-LS subgroup after 1 years’ treatment (P < 0.05). In the NPP-non-LS subgroup, 56% were responders; young age at baseline was a positive independent predictive factor (P < 0.001). NPP-non-LS-responders and the NPP-LS subgroup had a similar mean age (6.07 years vs 7.00 years) at baseline and height SDS gain in year 1 (0.64 vs 0.70), although NPP-non-LS-responders were taller (P < 0.001) at baseline. BMI SDS changes did not differ across subgroups. Treatment-emergent AEs were experienced by 65.3% of patients; hypoglycaemia was most common.

Conclusions

In most NPP children with SPIGFD, with or without LS, rhIGF1 therapy promotes linear growth. The safety profile was consistent with previous studies.

Free access

Paolo Cavarzere, Dinane Samara-Boustani, Isabelle Flechtner, Michèle Dechaux, Caroline Elie, Véronique Tardy, Yves Morel, and Michel Polak

Objective

Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by a high false-positive rate, mainly among preterm and low birth weight infants. The aims of this study were to describe a subgroup of infants with transient serum hyper-17-hydroxyprogesteronemia (hyper-17-OHPemia) and to compare them with false positive and affected by 21-hydroxylase deficiency newborns.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of all newborns positive at CAH neonatal screening, who were referred to our hospital to confirm the diagnosis from 2002 to 2006. They were submitted to clinical investigations and blood tests to evaluate 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), renin, and electrolyte levels. CAH-unaffected newborns with increased serum 17-OHP were submitted to strict follow-up monitoring, which included an ACTH-stimulating test and genetic analysis of the 21-hydroxylase gene, until serum 17-OHP decreased.

Results

Thirty-seven newborns with gestational ages ranging from 33 to 40 weeks were studied. Eight infants (three male and five female) were affected by CAH (serum 17-OHP: 277.5 (210–921) nmol/l), 14 (ten male and four female) were false positives (17-OHP: 3.75 (0.3–8.4) nmol/l), and 15 (ten male and five female) showed a serum hyper-17-OHPemia (17-OHP: 15.9 (9.9–33) nmol/l). No mutations of the 21-hydroxylase gene were found in infants with hyper-17-OHPemia and their serum 17-OHP levels were normalized by the third month of life.

Conclusion

We identified a population of infants with transient serum hyper-17-OHPemia, and no clinical signs of disease or 21-hydroxylase gene mutations. No further investigations are necessary after birth in these newborns if 17-OHP levels decrease, other confirmatory tests such as ACTH-stimulation test or genotyping analysis are necessary only if symptoms appear.

Free access

Anne Bachelot, Jean Louis Golmard, Jérôme Dulon, Nora Dahmoune, Monique Leban, Claire Bouvattier, Sylvie Cabrol, Juliane Leger, Michel Polak, and Philippe Touraine

Aim

Adverse outcomes in adult congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients are frequent. The determinants of them have not yet been established.

Objective

To establish the prevalence of adverse outcomes and to find determining factors for each of them.

Design, patients, and methods

Cross-sectional monocentric study of 104 patients with childhood onset of CAH (71 women, 33 men). Analysis established first the determinants of clinical, hormonal, genetic variables and second a composite criterion for some of the outcomes and determinants.

Results

BMI was above 25 kg/m2 in 44% of the cohort, adrenal hyperplasia and/or nodules were present in 45% of the patients, and irregular menstrual cycles and hyperandrogenism were found in 50 and 35% of the women respectively. In univariate analysis, the determinants of these outcomes were all linked to disease control, especially 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) and androstenedione concentrations. Low weight was a determinant of abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) (60% of the cohort). Multivariate analysis confirmed these data. A classic form (CF) of CAH was a determinant of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) (36% of the men). Total cumulative glucocorticoid dose was a determinant of BMI and TART, whereas fludrocortisone dose was a determinant of TART (P=0.03). In men, the composite criterion was associated with androstenedione concentration and CF. In women, the composite criterion was associated with total testosterone concentration.

Conclusion

The present study confirms the high prevalence of adverse outcomes in CAH patients. These are, most often, related to disease control. The impaired health status of adults with CAH could therefore be improved through the modification of treatment.

Restricted access

Michel Polak, Jerome Bertherat, Jacques Y. Li, Michelle Kujas, Michelle Le Dafniet, Hussein Weizani, Remy Van Effenterre, Jacques Epelbaum, and Gerard Turpin

Abstract.

An invasive TSH-secreting adenoma inducing mild hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in a 16-year-old male. Initial surgical treatment led to a temporary clinical and biological improvement. Recurrence of the thyrotoxicosis was treated with the somatostatin analogue, SMS 201-995 (octreotide) with normalization of the serum thyroid hormone levels with a dose of 200 μg per day. With immunoelectron microscopy, the tumour cells appeared poorly granulated with small secretory granules located at the periphery of the cells; only part of those were immunoreactive with an anti-TSHβ monoclonal antibody. No specific TRH binding site was found in a tumour membrane preparation. By quantitative autoradiography, somatostatin specific binding sites were as numerous in the TSH-secreting tumour as in control GH-secreting tumours. Binding kinetics and guanosine triphosphate dependency of the binding were equivalent in the TSH and GH tumours tested. Although all of the tumour cells displayed the same ultrastructural features, some were non-immunoreactive, suggesting that they could secrete an altered form of TSH. The absence of TRH receptors in the tumour cells is in accordance with previous reports on this type of tumour. We confirm the efficiency of octreotide treatment in this case of neoplastic TSH inappropriate secretion. The therapeutic effect of octreotide goes along with the presence of a high density of guanine nucleotide-dependent somatostatin binding sites in the tumour cells.

Free access

Carine Courtillot, Roselyne Baudoin, Tatiana Du Souich, Lucile Saatdjian, Isabelle Tejedor, Graziella Pinto, Juliane Léger, Michel Polak, Jean-Louis Golmard, Philippe Touraine, and on behalf of the Transition GHD Group

Objectives

Our aim was to analyze a large cohort of childhood onset GH deficiency (CO-GHD) adults from a unique adult center, in order to analyze their clinical management and to study the metabolic and bone status in relation to GHD and to the other pituitary deficits, and to evaluate these parameters during the long-term follow-up.

Design and methods

Observational retrospective cohort study on 112 consecutive CO-GHD adults transferred to our unit from 1st January 1994 to 1st March 2012. Evaluation of GHD in pediatrics and after transition was conducted following consensus guidelines. Data recorded from pediatric and adult files were GH doses, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging and function, and metabolic and bone status.

Results

Most patients presented with severe CO-GHD (64%) associated with other pituitary deficits (66%). CO-GHD was acquired in 56%, congenital in 33%, and idiopathic in 11% cases. Most patients (83%) stopped GH before transfer, at 16.3 years (median), despite persistence of GHD. Median age at transfer was 19.4 years. After transfer, GHD persisted in 101 patients and four of the 11 resolutive GHD were non idiopathic. IGF1 level was <−2 SDS in 70% of treated patients at transfer and in 34% of them after 3 years of treatment. Follow-up showed improvement in lipid profile and bone mineral density in severely persistent GHD patients under GH therapy. In multivariate analysis, the associated pituitary deficits seemed stronger determinant factors of metabolic and bone status than GHD.

Conclusions

This study raises concern about discontinuation of GH replacement therapy in pediatrics in severely persistent GHD patients and about the often insufficient dose of GH in the treatment of adult patients.

Free access

Helton Estrela Ramos, Melina Morandini, Aurore Carré, Elodie Tron, Corinne Floch, Laurent Mandelbrot, Nathalie Neri, Benoit De Sarcus, Albane Simon, Jean Paul Bonnefont, Jeanne Amiel, Isabelle Desguerre, Vassili Valayannopoulos, Mireille Castanet, and Michel Polak

Context

Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 or SLC16A2) mutations cause X-linked Allan–Herndon–Dudley syndrome. Heterozygous females are usually asymptomatic, but pregnancy may modify thyroid function and MCT8 is expressed in the placenta, suggesting that maternal and fetal abnormalities might develop even in the absence of MCT8 fetal mutation. Genetic counseling is so far based on X-linked transmission, and prenatal diagnosis is rarely performed.

Objective

To describe thyroid function and the prenatal diagnosis in pregnant mothers harboring heterozygous MCT8 mutations and management of the persistent maternal hypothyroxinemia.

Patients

Two women heterozygous for MCT8 mutations (c.1690G>A and c.1393-1G>C) were monitored throughout pregnancy.

Methods

Prenatal diagnosis included sex determination, direct MCT8 sequencing, and familial linkage analysis. Ultrasonography and hormonal assays for maternal thyroid function evaluation were performed serially during pregnancy. Neonatal thyroid hormonal status was assessed.

Results

None of the three fetuses (two males and one female) carried MCT8 mutations. One of the two heterozygous mothers revealed gestational hypothyroxinemia, prompting early levothyroxine (l-T4) therapy until delivery. The second heterozygous mother showed normal thyroid function but was preventively traited by l-T4 and all of the three neonates had normal thyroid hormone levels and thyroid gland at birth, suggesting advantages of prenatal care and/or compensatory mechanisms.

Conclusion

Heterozygous MCT8 women should be monitored for requirement of l-T4 therapy to prevent fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism and to avoid risk of potential cognitive delay due to gestational hypothyroxinemia. Moreover, when the disease-causing mutation is known and/or the first child is affected, prenatal diagnosis for male fetuses should be assessed early for MCT8 mutations by direct sequencing.

Free access

Zeina Chakhtoura, Anne Bachelot, Dinane Samara-Boustani, Jean-Charles Ruiz, Bruno Donadille, Jérôme Dulon, Sophie Christin-Maître, Claire Bouvattier, Marie-Charles Raux-Demay, Philippe Bouchard, Jean-Claude Carel, Juliane Leger, Frédérique Kuttenn, Michel Polak, and Philippe Touraine

Objective

It remains controversial whether long-term glucocorticoids are charged of bone demineralization in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The aim of this study was to know whether cumulative glucocorticoid dose from the diagnosis in childhood to adulthood in patients with CAH had a negative impact on bone mineral density (BMD).

Design

This was a retrospective study.

Methods

Thirty-eight adult patients with classical and non-classical CAH were included. BMD was measured in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Total cumulative glucocorticoid (TCG) and total average glucocorticoid (TAG) doses were calculated from pediatric and adult files.

Results

We showed a difference between final and target heights (−0.82±0.92 s.d. for women and −1.31±0.84 s.d. for men; P<0.001). Seventeen patients (44.7%) had bone demineralization (35.7% of women and 70% of men). The 28 women had higher BMD than the 10 men for lumbar (−0.26±1.20 vs −1.25±1.33 s.d.; P=0.02) and femoral T-scores (0.21±1.30 s.d. versus −1.08±1.10 s.d.; P=0.007). In the salt-wasting group, women were almost significantly endowed with a better BMD than men (P=0.053). We found negative effects of TCG, TAG on lumbar (P<0.001, P=0.002) and femoral T-scores (P=0.006, P<0.001), predominantly during puberty. BMI was protective on BMD (P=0.006).

Conclusion

The TCG is an important factor especially during puberty for a bone demineralization in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The glucocorticoid treatment should be adapted particularly at this life period and preventive measures should be discussed in order to limit this effect.

Free access

Yamina Dassa, Hélène Crosnier, Mathilde Chevignard, Magali Viaud, Claire Personnier, Isabelle Flechtner, Philippe Meyer, Stéphanie Puget, Nathalie Boddaert, Sylvain Breton, and Michel Polak

Objectives

Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health issue. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of permanent pituitary hormone deficiency and to detect the emergence of other pituitary dysfunctions or central precocious puberty several years after severe TBI.

Design

Follow-up at least 5 years post severe TBI of a prospective longitudinal study.

Patients

Overall, 66/87 children, who had endocrine evaluation 1 year post severe TBI, were included (24 with pituitary dysfunction 1 year post TBI).

Main outcome measures

In all children, the pituitary hormones basal levels were assessed at least 5 years post TBI. Growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests were performed 3–4 years post TBI in children with GH deficiency (GHD) 1 year post TBI and in all children with low height velocity (<−1 DS) or low IGF-1 (<−2 DS). Central precocious puberty (CPP) was confirmed by GnRH stimulation test.

Results

Overall, 61/66 children were followed up 7 (5–10) years post TBI (median; (range)); 17/61 children had GHD 1 year post TBI, and GHD was confirmed in 5/17 patients. For one boy, with normal pituitary function 1 year post TBI, GHD was diagnosed 6.5 years post TBI. 4/61 patients developed CPP, 5.7 (2.4–6.1) years post-TBI. Having a pituitary dysfunction 1 year post TBI was significantly associated with pituitary dysfunction or CPP more than 5 years post TBI.

Conclusion

Severe TBI in childhood can lead to permanent pituitary dysfunction; GHD and CPP may appear after many years. We recommend systematic hormonal assessment in children 1 year after severe TBI and a prolonged monitoring of growth and pubertal maturation. Recommendations should be elaborated for the families and treating physicians.