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Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Marion Marchand, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Samia Daghmoun, Emmanuelle Durand, Jean Tichet, Michel Marre, Beverley Balkau, Philippe Froguel, and Claire Lévy-Marchal

Objective

Height variability is largely under genetic control, although identifying the genetic variants involved has been until recently challenging. Smallness for gestational age (SGA) is a risk factor for adult short stature. Genome-wide association studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1042725) in the high mobility group A2 gene (HMGA2) that consistently associates with height variability but its interaction with SGA is unknown.

Design

We assess the contribution of rs1042725 SNP and height variability in a French population and the impact of rs1042725 on SGA status at birth and height at adulthood in SGA individuals.

Methods

We genotyped rs1042725 in 4710 healthy participants from the Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome (DESIR) cohort, 743 normal birth weight and 660 SGA individuals from the Haguenau study.

Results

rs1042725 is associated with increased height in the cohort participants (0.36 cm 95% CI (0.12–0.61) per C allele, P=0.004) but not with the SGA status or birth length. Interestingly, rs1042725 had a stronger effect on height in SGA participants (0.94 cm 95% CI (0.24–1.64) per C allele, P=0.009), especially in men (1.45 cm 95% CI (0.44–2.46) per C allele, P=0.005) in whom rs1042725 may explain 3% of height variability. SGA men carrying at least one C allele copy experienced more frequent catch-up in height (P add=0.07; P dom=0.03).

Conclusions

Our study supports further the contribution of HMGA2 rs1042725 to height variability in European populations and shows an increased effect on height in SGA individuals where this variant favors height catch-up.

Free access

Blandine Tramunt, Sarra Smati, Sandrine Coudol, Matthieu Wargny, Matthieu Pichelin, Béatrice Guyomarch, Abdallah Al-Salameh, Coralie Amadou, Sara Barraud, Édith Bigot, Lyse Bordier, Sophie Borot, Muriel Bourgeon, Olivier Bourron, Sybil Charriere, Nicolas Chevalier, Emmanuel Cosson, Bruno Fève, Anna Flaus-Furmaniuk, Pierre Fontaine, Amandine Galioot, Céline Gonfroy-Leymarie, Bruno Guerci, Sandrine Lablanche, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Etienne Larger, Adele Lasbleiz, Bruno Laviolle, Michel Marre, Marion Munch, Louis Potier, Gaëtan Prévost, Eric Renard, Yves Reznik, Dominique Seret-begue, Paul Sibilia, Philippe Thuillier, Bruno Vergès, Jean-Francois Gautier, Samy Hadjadj, Bertrand Cariou, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, and Pierre Gourdy

Objective:

Male sex is a determinant of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to characterize sex differences in severe outcomes in adults with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19.

Methods:

We performed a sex-stratified analysis of clinical and biological features and outcomes (i.e. invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], death, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and home discharge at day 7 [D7] or day 28 [D28]) in 2,380 patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 and included in the nationwide CORONADO observational study (NCT04324736).

Results:

The study population was predominantly male (63.5%). After multiple adjustments, female sex was negatively associated with the primary outcome (IMV and/or death, OR 0.66 [0.49-0.88]), death (OR 0.49 [0.30-0.79]) and ICU admission (OR 0.57 [0.43-0.77]) at D7, but only with ICU admission (OR 0.58 [0.43-0.77]) at D28. Older age and a history of microvascular complications were predictors of death at D28 in both sexes, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was predictive of death in women only. At admission, CRP, AST and eGFR predicted death in both sexes. Lymphocytopenia was an independent predictor of death in women only, while thrombocytopenia and elevated plasma glucose concentration were predictors of death in men only.

Conclusions:

In patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, female sex was associated with lower incidence of early severe outcomes, but did not influence the overall in-hospital mortality, suggesting that diabetes mitigates the female protection from COVID-19 severity. Sex-associated biological determinants may be useful to optimize COVID-19 prevention and management in women and men.