Caroline Raun Hansen, Hans Perrild, Birgitte Gade Koefoed and Mette Zander
To examine whether video consultations preceded by measurements of blood glucose, weight and blood pressure as add-on to standard care could contribute to achieving and maintaining good diabetes control among patients with poorly regulated type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Randomized controlled trial.
165 patients with T2D were randomized 1:1 to telemedicine intervention as add-on to clinic-based care or control (clinic-based care). The intervention consisted of monthly video conferences with a nurse via a tablet computer and lasted for 32 weeks. Regularly self-monitored measurements of blood sugar, blood pressure and weight were uploaded and visible to patient and nurse. Both groups were followed up six months after the end of the intervention period.
HbA1c after eight months.
Video conferences preceded by uploads of measurements as add-on to clinic-based care led to a significant reduction of HbA1c compared to that in standard care (0.69% vs 0.18%, P = 0.022). However, at six-month follow-up, the inter-group difference in HbA1c-reduction was no longer significant. Non-completers had higher HbA1c levels at baseline and a lower degree of education.
Video consultations preceded by uploading relevant measurements can lead to clinically and statistically significant improvements in glycemic control among patients who have not responded to standard regimens. However, continuing effort and attention are essential as the effect does not persist when intervention ends. Furthermore, future studies should focus on differentiation as the most vulnerable patients are at greater risk of non-adherence.
Nicole Jacqueline Jensen, Malin Nilsson, Jonas Schultz Ingerslev, Dorte Aalund Olsen, Mogens Fenger, Mads Svart, Niels Møller, Mette Zander, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak and Jørgen Rungby
Cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes is associated with cerebral glucose hypometabolism. Providing a glucose substitute such as ketone bodies might restore metabolic balance in glucose-compromised neurones and improve cognitive performance. We aimed to investigate if β-hydroxybutyrate (ketone body) infusion acutely affects cognitive performance, measured by a neuropsychological test battery, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial.
Eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes received i.v. ketone body (β-hydroxybutyrate) and placebo (saline) infusion in a randomised order on two separate occasions. On both days of examination, blood glucose was clamped at 7.5 mmol/L and a neuropsychological test battery was used to assess global cognitive performance (primary outcome) and specialized cognitive measures of verbal memory, working memory, executive function, psychomotor speed, and sustained attention.
During neurocognitive testing, β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 2.4 vs 0.1 mmol/L. Working memory assessed by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale letter-number-sequencing significantly improved by 1.6 points (95% CI: 0.7, 2.4; non-adjusted P < 0.001) corresponding to a 17% increase in performance during ketone infusion compared to placebo. There was no change for global cognitive performance or any other cognitive measure after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and glycaemic status did not associate with test performance; however, insulin resistance measured by HOMA was related to improved working memory performance during ketone infusion (β = 4%; 95% CI: 1.1, 7.7; P = 0.012).
Ketone infusion specifically improved working memory performance in patients with type 2 diabetes in the absence of changes in global cognition.