Previously, we observed an association between family history of type 1 diabetes and development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The aims of this study were to assess whether type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene variants explain this association and investigate the effect of the variants on insulin secretion and presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) in nondiabetic adults.
Design and methods
Polymorphisms in INS (rs689), PTPN22 (rs2476601), CTLA4 (rs3087243), and the HLA-DQA1-DQB1 regions (rs2187668 and rs7454108 tagging HLA-DQ2.5 and HLA-DQ8 respectively) were genotyped in the Botnia Prospective Study (n=2764), in which initially nondiabetic participants were followed for a mean of 8.1 years.
The variants did not explain the association between family history of type 1 diabetes and development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In these nondiabetic adults, HLA-DQ and PTPN22 risk genotypes were associated with GADA (HLA-DQ2.5/HLA-DQ8 or HLA-DQ8: OR (95% CI): 1.7 (1.3–2.3), P=0.0004; PTPN22 CT/TT: OR: 1.6 (1.2–2.2), P=0.003; P values were adjusted for sex, age, BMI, and follow-up time). A higher genetic risk score was associated with lower insulin secretion (insulinogenic index: 13.27 (16.27) vs 12.69 (15.27) vs 10.98 (13.06), P=0.02) and better insulin sensitivity index (risk score of 0–1 vs 2–3 vs 4–6: 142 (111) vs 144 (118) vs 157 (127), P=0.01) at baseline and a poorer capacity to compensate for the increased insulin demand after follow-up.
In nondiabetic adults, HLA-DQ2.5/HLA-DQ8 and PTPN22 CT/TT genotypes were associated with GADA.