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Anouk Scholten, Menno R Vriens, Geert Jan E Cromheecke, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, and Gerlof D Valk

Objective

Hemodynamic (HD) instability still underlies difficulties during pheochromocytoma resection. Little is known about HD instability in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2-related pheochromocytoma. Our aim was to assess differences in HD during pheochromocytoma resection between MEN2 and non-MEN patients. In addition, we sought to identify risk factors for intraoperative HD instability.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Methods

A total of 22 MEN2 and 34 non-MEN patients underwent 61 pheochromocytoma resections at the University Medical Center Utrecht between 2000 and 2010. All MEN2-related pheochromocytomas were diagnosed by annual screening. HD instability was assessed by measuring the frequency of hypotensive (mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) <60 mmHg) and/or hypertensive (systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP) >200 mmHg) episodes.

Results

Compared with non-MEN patients, MEN2 patients were younger at diagnosis, had less symptoms, lower hormone levels, and smaller tumors. Intraoperatively, MEN2 patients had a similar frequency of hypertensive episodes (1.3 vs 1.9, P=0.162, 95% confidence interval (CI): −6.7 to 35.4) and a similar maximum SABP (200 vs 220 mmHg, P=0.180, 95% CI: −9.7 to 50.5). However, MEN2 patients experienced less frequent (1.04 vs 2.6, P=0.003, 95% CI: 0.57 to 2.6) and less severe hypotensive episodes after tumor resection (lowest MABP: 52.5 vs 45.6 mmHg, P=0.015, 95% CI: −12.6 to 1.16). Tumor size was an independent risk factor for HD instability for the total group after multivariate analysis.

Conclusion

MEN2 patients with pheochromocytoma, despite their smaller tumors, do not distinguish themselves from non-MEN patients in terms of hypertensive episodes during pheochromocytoma resection. Therefore, pretreatment with α- and β-blockade remains the standard of care in MEN2-related as well as in non-MEN-related pheochromocytomas.

Free access

Joanne M de Laat, Emma Tham, Carolina R C Pieterman, Menno R Vriens, Johannes A N Dorresteijn, Michiel L Bots, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Rob B van der Luijt, and Gerlof D Valk

Objective

Endocrine diseases that can be part of the rare inheritable syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) commonly occur in the general population. Patients at risk for MEN1, and consequently their families, must be identified to prevent morbidity through periodic screening for the detection and treatment of manifestations in an early stage. The aim of the study was to develop a model for predicting MEN1 in individual patients with sporadically occurring endocrine tumors.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Methods

In a nationwide study in The Netherlands, patients with sporadically occurring endocrine tumors in whom the referring physician suspected the MEN1 syndrome were identified between 1998 and 2011 (n=365). Logistic regression analysis with internal validation using bootstrapping and external validation with a cohort from Sweden was used.

Results

A MEN1 mutation was found in 15.9% of 365 patients. Recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT; odds ratio (OR) 162.40); nonrecurrent pHPT (OR 25.78); pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) and duodenal NETs (OR 17.94); pituitary tumor (OR 4.71); NET of stomach, thymus, or bronchus (OR 25.84); positive family history of NET (OR 4.53); and age (OR 0.96) predicted MEN1. The c-statistic of the prediction model was 0.86 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81–0.90) in the derivation cohort and 0.77 (95% CI 0.66–0.88) in the validation cohort.

Conclusion

With the prediction model, the risk of MEN1 can be calculated in patients suspected for MEN1 with sporadically occurring endocrine tumors.

Free access

Lutske Lodewijk, Pim J Bongers, Jakob W Kist, Elfi B Conemans, Joanne M de Laat, Carla R C Pieterman, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Ciska Jorna, Ad R Hermus, Olaf M Dekkers, Wouter W de Herder, Madeleine L Drent, Peter H Bisschop, Bas Havekes, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Menno R Vriens, and Gerlof D Valk

Objective

Currently, little is known about the prevalence of thyroid tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients and it is unclear whether tumorigenesis of these thyroid tumors is MEN1-related. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas in MEN1 patients compared with nonMEN1 patients and to verify whether thyroid tumorigenesis is MEN1-related.

Design

A cross-sectional study.

Methods

The study included two groups: patients with MEN1 and a matched non-MEN1 control group without known thyroid disease, who underwent an ultrasound of the neck for the localization of parathyroid adenoma. Ninety-five MEN1 patients underwent ultrasound of the neck and were matched on gender and age with non-MEN1 patients. The prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas described in the ultrasound report was scored. Multinodular goiters, solitary nodes, and cysts were scored as incidentalomas. Presence of nuclear menin expression was evaluated by menin immunostaining of the thyroid tumors.

Results

In the MEN1 group, 43 (45%) patients had a thyroid incidentaloma compared with 48 (51%) in the non-MEN1 group, of which 14 (15%) and 16 (17%), respectively, were solitary nodes. Menin was expressed in the nuclei of all evaluated thyroid tumors.

Conclusions

MEN1 patients do not have a higher prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas compared with primary hyperparathyroidism patients without the diagnosis of MEN1. Menin was expressed in the thyroid tumors of MEN1 patients.

Free access

Hanneke M van Santen, Erik K Alexander, Scott A Rivkees, Eva Frey, Sarah C Clement, Miranda P Dierselhuis, Chantal A Lebbink, Thera P Links, Kerstin Lorenz, Robin P Peeters, Christoph Reiners, Menno R Vriens, Paul Nathan, Arthur B Schneider, and Frederik Verburg

The incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has increased rapidly over the past several years. Thus far, the only conclusively established risk factor for developing DTC is exposure to ionizing radiation, especially when the exposure occurs in childhood. Since the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) is increasing due to improvements in treatment and supportive care, the number of patients who will develop DTC after surviving childhood cancer (secondary thyroid cancer) is also expected to rise. Currently, there are no recommendations for management of thyroid cancer specifically for patients who develop DTC as a consequence of cancer therapy during childhood. Since complications or late effects from prior cancer treatment may elevate the risk of toxicity from DTC therapy, the medical history of CCS should be considered carefully in choosing DTC treatment. In this paper, we emphasize how the occurrence and treatment of the initial childhood malignancy affects the medical and psychosocial factors that will play a role in the diagnosis and treatment of a secondary DTC. We present considerations for clinicians to use in the management of patients with secondary DTC, based on the available evidence combined with experience-based opinions of the authors.