Objective: Adiponutrin is a new transmembrane protein specifically expressed in adipose tissue. In obese subjects, short- or long-term calorie restriction diets were associated with a reduction in adiponutrin gene expression. Adiponut.rin mRNA level was previously shown to be negatively correlated with fasting glucose plasma levels and associated with insulin sensitivity of non-diabetic obese and non-obese subjects. The purpose of the present work was to get more insight into the regulation of adiponutrin gene expression by insulin and/or glucose using clamp studies and to examine its potential dysregulation in subjects with a deterioration of glucose homeostasis.
Methods: Adiponutrin gene expression was quantified by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR in s.c. adipose tissue of healthy lean subjects after an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EGHI), a hyperglycemic euinsulinemic clamp, and a hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic (HGHI) clamp. Adiponutrin gene expression was also analyzed in patients with different levels of insulin resistance.
Results: During EGHI, insulin infusion induced adiponutrin gene expression 8.4-fold (P = 0.008). Its expression was also induced by glucose infusion, although to a lesser extend (2.2-fold, P = 0.03). Infusion of both insulin and glucose (HGHI) had an additive effect on the adiponutrin expression (tenfold, P = 0.008). In a pathological context, adiponutrin gene was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of type-1 diabetic patients with chronic hyperglycemia compared with healthy subjects. Conversely, adiponutrin gene expression was significantly reduced in type-2 diabetics (P = 0.01), but remained moderately regulated in these patients after the EGHI clamp (2.5-fold increased).
Conclusion: These results suggest a strong relationship between adiponutrin expression, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism in human adipose tissue.