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Open access

Marika Paalanne, Marja Vääräsmäki, Sanna Mustaniemi, Marjaana Tikanmäki, Karoliina Wehkalampi, Hanna-Maria Matinolli, Johan Eriksson, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Laure Morin-Papunen, and Eero Kajantie

Objective:

It has been suggested that adverse early life exposures increase the risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in later life. We hypothesized that women born preterm would have more biochemical and clinical signs of PCOS than women born at term.

Design:

The ESTER Preterm Birth Study participants were born in Northern Finland, and identified from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort and the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Altogether, 74 women born very or moderately preterm (<34 gestational weeks, VMPT), 127 born late preterm (at 34–36 weeks, LPT), and 184 born full term (≥37 weeks, controls) were included in the analysis (mean age 23.2y).

Methods:

We measured serum total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated free androgen index (FAI). PCOS according to the clinical and biochemical signs was defined either as hirsutism and oligoamenorrhea (via questionnaire), or as oligoamenorrhea and elevated testosterone levels (>2.4 nmol/l).

Results:

Women born VMPT/LPT exhibited 33.0% (8.7, 62.8)/16.4% (-2.0, 38.1) higher testosterone, 28.5% (5.3, 45.9)/24.1% (5.6, 38.9) lower SHBG levels, and 64.6% (19.4, 127.1)/ 42.5% (11.1, 82.9) higher FAI than controls after adjusting for age and recruitment cohort, maternal BMI, smoking, and pregnancy disorders, parental education, history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction or stroke, and subject’s birth weight SD. Odds ratios for having PCOS were 1.67 (0.44, 6.23)/3.11 (1.26, 7.70).

Conclusions:

Women born preterm have a more hyperandrogenic hormonal profile, and those born LPT are approximately three times more likely at risk to have PCOS compared to women born at term.

Free access

Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Büşra Durmuş, Ulla Sovio, Albert Hofman, Hein Raat, Eric A P Steegers, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, and Vincent W V Jaddoe

Objective

To examine whether infant growth rates are influenced by fetal growth characteristics and are associated with the risks of overweight and obesity in early childhood.

Design

This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward.

Methods

Fetal growth characteristics (femur length (FL) and estimated fetal weight (EFW)) were assessed in the second and third trimesters and at birth (length and weight). Infant peak weight velocity (PWV), peak height velocity (PHV), and body mass index at adiposity peak (BMIAP) were derived for 6267 infants with multiple height and weight measurements.

Results

EFW measured during the second trimester was positively associated with PWV and BMIAP during infancy. Subjects with a smaller weight gain between the third trimester and birth had a higher PWV. FL measured during the second trimester was positively associated with PHV. Gradual length gain between the second and third trimesters and between the third trimester and birth were associated with higher PHV. Compared with infants in the lowest quintile, the infants in the highest quintile of PWV had strongly increased risks of overweight/obesity at the age of 4 years (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 15.01 (9.63, 23.38)).

Conclusion

Fetal growth characteristics strongly influence infant growth rates. A higher PWV, which generally occurs in the first month after birth, was associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity at 4 years of age. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to determine how fetal and infant growth patterns affect the risk of disease in later life.

Open access

Karani S Vimaleswaran, Alana Cavadino, Niek Verweij, Ilja M Nolte, Irene Mateo Leach, LifeLines Cohort Study, Juha Auvinen, Juha Veijola, Paul Elliott, Brenda W Penninx, Harold Snieder, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Pim van der Harst, Robert D Cohen, Barbara J Boucher, and Elina Hyppönen

Background and objective

Given the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in the accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes and in the enhancement of protective mechanisms in acute ethanol intake, we hypothesised that UCP2 polymorphisms are likely to cause liver disease through their interactions with obesity and alcohol intake. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the interaction between tagging polymorphisms in the UCP2 gene (rs2306819, rs599277 and rs659366), alcohol intake and obesity traits such as BMI and waist circumference (WC) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in a large meta-analysis of data sets from three populations (n=20 242).

Design and methods

The study populations included the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n=4996), Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n=1883) and LifeLines Cohort Study (n=13 363). Interactions between the polymorphisms and obesity and alcohol intake on dichotomised ALT and GGT levels were assessed using logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test.

Results

In the meta-analysis of the three cohorts, none of the three UCP2 polymorphisms were associated with GGT or ALT levels. There was no evidence for interaction between the polymorphisms and alcohol intake on GGT and ALT levels. In contrast, the association of WC and BMI with GGT levels varied by rs659366 genotype (P interaction=0.03 and 0.007, respectively; adjusted for age, gender, high alcohol intake, diabetes, hypertension and serum lipid concentrations).

Conclusion

In conclusion, our findings in 20 242 individuals suggest that UCP2 gene polymorphisms may cause liver dysfunction through the interaction with body fat rather than alcohol intake.