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Sanna Koivunen, Eero Kajantie, Annukka Torkki, Aini Bloigu, Mika Gissler, Anneli Pouta, and Marja Vääräsmäki


To evaluate the effect of the change in the gestational diabetes (GDM) screening policy from risk-factor based to comprehensive screening on the prevalence and type of GDM and characteristics of GDM pregnancies.


Population-based register study in Finland. Subjects were GDM women who gave birth before (2006, n=5185) and after (2010, n=6683) the policy change. All the other women in those years without pre-pregnancy diabetes acted as controls (51 759 and 52 398 respectively).


GDM women with singleton pregnancy were identified through The Finnish Medical Birth Register by abnormal oral glucose tolerance test or initiation of insulin. Main outcome measures were prevalence of GDM (total and insulin/diet-treated), and caesarean section rate.


The proportion of screened mothers increased from 27.5 to 51.3% and the total prevalence of GDM from 9.1 to 11.3%. This increase consisted mainly of diet-treated mothers, while the number and proportion of insulin-treated mothers decreased (21.8% vs13.3%, P<0.001). The proportion of primiparous women increased (34.5–39.4%, P<0.0001) and mean pre-pregnancy BMI decreased (28.6–28.2, P<0.001). The overall caesarean section rate remained the same but increased among women with GDM (20.8–22.1%) adjusted odds ratios being 1.22 (95% CI 1.14, 1.31) during comprehensive and 1.10 (95% CI 1.02, 1.19) during risk factor-based screening.


The shift to comprehensive screening led to a significant increase in women with GDM, who were more often primiparous and had a lower BMI. Comprehensive screening did not perform better in diagnosing women needing insulin treatment.

Open access

Marika Paalanne, Marja Vääräsmäki, Sanna Mustaniemi, Marjaana Tikanmäki, Karoliina Wehkalampi, Hanna-Maria Matinolli, Johan Eriksson, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Laure Morin-Papunen, and Eero Kajantie


It has been suggested that adverse early life exposures increase the risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in later life. We hypothesized that women born preterm would have more biochemical and clinical signs of PCOS than women born at term.


The ESTER Preterm Birth Study participants were born in Northern Finland, and identified from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort and the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Altogether, 74 women born very or moderately preterm (<34 gestational weeks, VMPT), 127 born late preterm (at 34–36 weeks, LPT), and 184 born full term (≥37 weeks, controls) were included in the analysis (mean age 23.2y).


We measured serum total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated free androgen index (FAI). PCOS according to the clinical and biochemical signs was defined either as hirsutism and oligoamenorrhea (via questionnaire), or as oligoamenorrhea and elevated testosterone levels (>2.4 nmol/l).


Women born VMPT/LPT exhibited 33.0% (8.7, 62.8)/16.4% (-2.0, 38.1) higher testosterone, 28.5% (5.3, 45.9)/24.1% (5.6, 38.9) lower SHBG levels, and 64.6% (19.4, 127.1)/ 42.5% (11.1, 82.9) higher FAI than controls after adjusting for age and recruitment cohort, maternal BMI, smoking, and pregnancy disorders, parental education, history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction or stroke, and subject’s birth weight SD. Odds ratios for having PCOS were 1.67 (0.44, 6.23)/3.11 (1.26, 7.70).


Women born preterm have a more hyperandrogenic hormonal profile, and those born LPT are approximately three times more likely at risk to have PCOS compared to women born at term.