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Massimo Mannelli, Mario Maggi, Maria Laura De Feo, Silvana Cuomo, Giuseppe Delitala, Giorgio Giusti and Mario Serio

Abstract. To evaluate a possible role for endogenous opiates in modulating sympathetic-adrenal function in humans, we measured plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine (radioenzymatic method), blood pressure and heart rate in 8 normal men (aged 24–33 years) before and after placebo or different doses (0.4, 4.8, 10 mg) of naloxone. In 6 subjects plasma insulin and glucagon levels were also measured by radioimmunoassay after placebo and 10 mg naloxone.

Naloxone had no significant effect upon blood pressure, heart rate, plasma insulin, glucagon or norepinephrine. Placebo, 0.4 and 4.8 mg naloxone caused no significant change in peripheral levels of epinephrine while 10 mg produced an increase in epinephrine concentrations 15 min after iv injection (186 ± 23 vs 99 ± 9 pmol/l, P < 0.01).

Since naloxone did not modify plasma levels of insulin and glucagon, an indirect effect of naloxone on adrenal medullary secretion seems to be excluded.

These results are in agreement with in vitro experimental data obtained in animals and suggest that endogenous opiates also have a role in modulating adrenal medullary secretion in man.

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Mario Rotondi, Roberta Minelli, Flavia Magri, Paola Leporati, Paola Romagnani, Maria Cristina Baroni, Roberto Delsignore, Mario Serio and Luca Chiovato

Objective: Thyroid autoimmunity is a common side effect of interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment for chronic hepatitis C. There are currently no reliable parameters to predict the occurrence of thyroid dysfunctions in patients undergoing IFN-α therapy. CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) is a chemokine known to play a role in both thyroid autoimmune disease and hepatitis C virus (HCV) hepatitis.

Design: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CXCL10 levels in HCV patients treated with IFN-α in relation to the occurrence of thyroid dysfunctions. Serum CXCL10 levels were assayed in 25 HCV patients (proven to be negative for serum thyroid antibodies) before and during IFN-α therapy (2, 4 and 6 months) and in 50 healthy controls. HCV patients were retrospectively selected according to the occurrence of IFN-α-induced thyroid dysfunction and were assigned to two groups. Group I included 15 patients who did not develop thyroid antibody positivity or dysfunction; group II included ten patients who showed the appearance of serum thyroid antibodies, followed by clinically overt thyroid dysfunction.

Results: Patients with HCV, regardless of the development of thyroid dysfunctions, had significantly higher serum CXCL10 than controls (261.6±123.4 vs 80.4±33.6 pg/ml; P<0.00001). Pretreatment mean serum CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in Group I versus Group II (308.6±130.7 vs 191.1±69.4 pg/ml; P<0.05). Groups I and II showed different rates of favourable response to IFN-α treatment (33 and 90% respectively).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that measuring serum CXCL10 before IFN-α treatment may be helpful for identifying those patients with higher risk to develop thyroid dysfunction, and require a careful thyroid surveillance throughout the treatment.

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Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi, Mario Rotondi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Paola Romagnani, Mariano Grosso, Ele Ferrannini and Mario Serio

Objective: Serum CXCL10 (an interferon-γ-inducible chemokine) levels (sCXCL10) are increased in several autoimmune conditions, including Graves’ disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Longitudinal assessment of sCXCL10 in autoimmune hypo- or hyperthyroidism has not yet been performed.

Design and methods: We longitudinally assayed sCXCL10 in the following groups:

  1. thirty-three GD and 11 toxic nodular goiter (TNG) patients when hyperthyroid (Hyper) and when reaching euthyroidism (Eu) with methimazole therapy (MMI)
  2. sixty-six AT (33 hypothyroid (Hypo) and 33 Eu) patients, basally and after reaching EU (for Hypo) with levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy
  3. twenty-two patients with thyroid cancer (CA) under L-T4-suppressive treatment, of whom 11 were re-evaluated after L-T4 withdrawal for diagnostic WBS, and 11 after recombinant TSH (rhTSH) administration
  4. thirty-three healthy controls.

Results: At initial evaluation, Hyper GD and AT (Hypo significantly higher than Eu) showed significantly higher mean sCXCL10 than all other groups. MMI treatment led to a significant decrease in sCXCL10 only in GD (not in TNG), while restoration of Eu, in Hypo AT, by L-T4 was not accompanied by significant sCXCL10 change. CA showed sCXCL10 comparable to controls, and both Hypo after L-T4 withdrawal and rhTSH injection had no effect on sCXCL10.

Conclusions: Treatment of Hyper leads to a significant decrease in sCXCL10 only in GD, and this probably depends upon the MMI immunomodulatory effect. L-T4 correction of Hypo is not accompanied by significant modification of sCXCL10 in AT. Increased sCXCL10 is not associated with Hyper or Hypo per se, but is specifically sustained by the autoimmune inflammatory event occurring in both GD and AT.

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Alessandro Antonelli, Mario Rotondi, Poupak Fallahi, Paola Romagnani, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Aldo Paolicchi, Ele Ferrannini and Mario Serio

Objective: To measure serum levels of CXCL10 and CCL2 prototype chemokines of the two major subclass (CXC and CC) in patients with newly diagnosed chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), and relate the findings to the clinical phenotype.

Design and methods: Serum CXCL10 and CCL2 were assayed in 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed chronic AT, in sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers (n = 37) and in 20 patients with non-toxic multinodular goiter, extracted from a random sample of the general population from the same geographic area.

Results: CXCL10 serum levels were significantly higher in patients with thyroiditis than in controls or multinodular goiter patients, while comparable CCL2 levels were found between groups. CXCL10 levels were significantly increased in hypothyroid patients and in those with an hypoechoic pattern (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0001, respectively) while serum CCL2 levels were significantly increased in patients older than 50 years and in those with hypothyroidism (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.03, respectively). No correlation between CXCL10 and CCL2 serum levels could be demonstrated. CXCL10 and CCL2 were studied separately in relation to clinical features of AT patients. Two separate multiple linear regression models for CXCL10 and CCL2 were performed, including age, thyroid volume, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, anti-thyroid peroxidase (AbTPO), hypoechoic pattern, and the presence of hypervascularity, demonstrating that ln of serum CXCL10 levels was associated with TSH independently of other possible confounders levels [regression coefficient (R.C.) 0.143 confidence interval (C.I.) (0.042–0.245); P = 0.0059], while serum CCL2 were significantly associated only with age [R.C. 5.412 C.I. (3.838–6.986); P < 0.0001].

Conclusion: Our results, obtained in a large cohort of newly diagnosed AT patients demonstrate increased CXCL10 especially in hypothyroid patients with a more aggressive disorder, and normal CCL2 serum levels in AT.