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Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Alexander S Busch, Emmie N Upners, Margit Bistrup Fischer, Katharina M Main, Anna-Maria Andersson, Trine Holm Johannsen, Casper P. Hagen, and Anders Juul

Objective: Little is known about the ratio between luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during infancy. This study aimed to evaluate serum and urinary LH/FSH as a marker of sex with age-specific cutoffs in healthy infants.

Design: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of healthy infants aged 0-1.2 years.

Methods: In total, 236 healthy infants (122 boys, 114 girls) from The COPENHAGEN Minipuberty Study ( ID: NCT02784184), with 567 serum and 603 urine samples, were included. Measures of diagnostic accuracy, including sensitivity and specificity, were used to assess the ability of LH/FSH to detect sex in healthy infants.

Results: In both serum and urine, LH/FSH was highest in males with minimal overlap between the sexes. In contrast to isolated LH and FSH concentrations, LH/FSH ratios in both serum and urine were excellent markers of sex from 0-1.2 years with median sensitivities and specificities ranging from 93-100% with correspondingly narrow 95% confidence intervals.

Conclusions: Serum and urinary LH/FSH ratios are excellent discriminators of sex in healthy infants during the entire first year of life. The clinical role and application of the ratio remains to be elucidated.

Free access

Kirstine Jespersen, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Trine Holm Johannsen, Peter Christiansen, Niels E Skakkebaek, and Anders Juul


Non-palpable testes remain a diagnostic challenge, often involving exploratory laparoscopy. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a wide range of reproductive hormones in order to distinguish between bilateral cryptorchidism and bilateral anorchia.


In this retrospective study, we identified and included 36 boys with non-palpable testes (20 with cryptorchidism, 3 with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), and 13 with anorchia) at first examination during childhood.


Information on karyotype, phenotype, surgical results from laparoscopy, and biochemistry was retrieved from patient files. We compared serum concentrations of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, and hCG stimulation testing in cryptorchid and anorchid boys to serum concentrations in a large, age-matched control group. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of each reproductive hormone as a predictor of the presence of functional testicular tissue.


Concentrations of AMH in 0–1 year olds: ≥155 pmol/L and >1–15 year olds: ≥19 pmol/L, inhibin B (≥22 pg/mL and ≥4 pg/mL), FSH (≤28.9 IU/L and ≤20.3 IU/L) and hCG-induced testosterone (>1-15 year olds: ≥2 nmol/L) were significantly sensitive and specific markers in predicting the presence of functional testicular tissue in boys with non-palpable testes. In infancy, anorchid infants had significantly elevated gonadotropin levels, while CHH had low levels.


Our findings suggest that laparoscopy may not be necessary in all boys with non-palpable testes if reproductive hormones unequivocally confirm the presence of functional testicular tissue. However, proving the absence may still be a diagnostic challenge.

Open access

Angela K Lucas-Herald, Jillian Bryce, Andreas Kyriakou, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Wiebke Arlt, Laura Audi, Antonio Balsamo, Federico Baronio, Silvano Bertelloni, Markus Bettendorf, Antonia Brooke, Hedi L Claahsen van der Grinten, Justin H Davies, Gloria Hermann, Liat de Vries, Ieuan A Hughes, Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Feyza Darendeliler, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Mona Ellaithi, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Simone Fica, Lavinia Nedelea, Aneta Gawlik, Evgenia Globa, Nataliya Zelinska, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E Hannema, Olaf Hiort, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Violeta Iotova, Vilhelm Mladenov, Vandana Jain, Rajni Sharma, Farida Jennane, Colin Johnston, Gil Guerra Junior, Daniel Konrad, Odile Gaisl, Nils Krone, Ruth Krone, Katherine Lachlan, Dejun Li, Corina Lichiardopol, Lidka Lisa, Renata Markosyan, Inas Mazen, Klaus Mohnike, Marek Niedziela, Anna Nordenstrom, Rodolfo Rey, Mars Skaeil, Lloyd J W Tack, Jeremy Tomlinson, Naomi Weintrob, Martine Cools, and S Faisal Ahmed


To determine trends in clinical practice for individuals with DSD requiring gonadectomy.


Retrospective cohort study.


Information regarding age at gonadectomy according to diagnosis; reported sex; time of presentation to specialist centre; and location of centre from cases reported to the International DSD Registry and who were over 16 years old in January 2019.


Data regarding gonadectomy were available in 668 (88%) individuals from 44 centres. Of these, 248 (37%) (median age (range) 24 (17, 75) years) were male and 420 (63%) (median age (range) 26 (16, 86) years) were female. Gonadectomy was reported from 36 centres in 351/668 cases (53%). Females were more likely to undergo gonadectomy (n = 311, P < 0.0001). The indication for gonadectomy was reported in 268 (76%). The most common indication was mitigation of tumour risk in 172 (64%). Variations in the practice of gonadectomy were observed; of the 351 cases from 36 centres, 17 (5%) at 9 centres had undergone gonadectomy before their first presentation to the specialist centre. Median age at gonadectomy of cases from high-income countries and low-/middle-income countries (LMIC) was 13.0 years (0.1, 68) years and 16.5 years (1, 28), respectively (P < 0.0001) with the likelihood of long-term retention of gonads being higher in LMIC countries.


The likelihood of gonadectomy depends on the underlying diagnosis, sex of rearing and the geographical setting. Clinical benchmarks, which can be studied across all forms of DSD will allow a better understanding of the variation in the practice of gonadectomy.