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Kirstine Jespersen, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Trine Holm Johannsen, Peter Christiansen, Niels E Skakkebaek, and Anders Juul


Non-palpable testes remain a diagnostic challenge, often involving exploratory laparoscopy. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a wide range of reproductive hormones in order to distinguish between bilateral cryptorchidism and bilateral anorchia.


In this retrospective study, we identified and included 36 boys with non-palpable testes (20 with cryptorchidism, 3 with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), and 13 with anorchia) at first examination during childhood.


Information on karyotype, phenotype, surgical results from laparoscopy, and biochemistry was retrieved from patient files. We compared serum concentrations of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, and hCG stimulation testing in cryptorchid and anorchid boys to serum concentrations in a large, age-matched control group. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of each reproductive hormone as a predictor of the presence of functional testicular tissue.


Concentrations of AMH in 0–1 year olds: ≥155 pmol/L and >1–15 year olds: ≥19 pmol/L, inhibin B (≥22 pg/mL and ≥4 pg/mL), FSH (≤28.9 IU/L and ≤20.3 IU/L) and hCG-induced testosterone (>1-15 year olds: ≥2 nmol/L) were significantly sensitive and specific markers in predicting the presence of functional testicular tissue in boys with non-palpable testes. In infancy, anorchid infants had significantly elevated gonadotropin levels, while CHH had low levels.


Our findings suggest that laparoscopy may not be necessary in all boys with non-palpable testes if reproductive hormones unequivocally confirm the presence of functional testicular tissue. However, proving the absence may still be a diagnostic challenge.

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Angela K Lucas-Herald, Jillian Bryce, Andreas Kyriakou, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Wiebke Arlt, Laura Audí, Antonio Balsamo, Federico Baronio, Silvano Bertelloni, Markus Bettendorf, Antonia Brooke, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Justin Davies, Gloria Hermann, Liat de Vries, Ieuan A Hughes, Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Feyza Darendeliler, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Mona Ellaithi, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Simona Fica, Lavinia Stejereanu, Aneta Gawlik, Evgenia Globa, Nataliya Zelinska, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine Hannema, Olaf Hiort, P-m Holterhus, Violeta Iotova, Vilhelm Mladenov, Vandana Jain, Rajni Sharma, Farida Jennane, Colin Johnston, Gil Guerra-Junior, Daniel Konrad, Odile Gaisl, Nils P Krone, Ruth Krone, Katherine Lachlan, Dejun Li, Corina Lichiardopol, Lidka Lisá, Renata Levoni Markosyan, Inas Mazen, Klaus Mohnike, Marek Niedziela, Anna Nordenstrom, Rodolfo A Rey, Mars Skae, Lloyd JW Tack, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Naomi Weintrob, Martine Cools, and S Faisal Ahmed

Objectives: To determine trends in clinical practice for individuals with DSD requiring gonadectomy.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: Information regarding age at gonadectomy according to diagnosis; reported sex; time of presentation to specialist center; and location of center from cases reported to the International DSD Registry and who were over 16 years old in January 2019.

Results: Data regarding gonadectomy were available in 668 (88%) individuals from 44 centers. Of these, 248 (37%) (median age (range) 24 (17, 75) years) were male and 420 (63%) (median age (range) 26 (16, 86) years) were female. Gonadectomy was reported from 36 centers in 351/668 cases (53%). Females were more likely to undergo gonadectomy (n=311, p<0.0001). The indication for gonadectomy was reported in 268 (76%). The most common indication was mitigation of tumour risk in 172 (64%). Variations in the practice of gonadectomy were observed; of the 351 cases from 36 centers, 17 (5%) at 9 centers had undergone gonadectomy before their first presentation to the specialist center. Median age at gonadectomy of cases from high income countries and low/middle income countries (LMIC) was 13.0 yrs (0.1, 68) years and 16.5 yrs (1, 28), respectively (p<0.0001) with the likelihood of long-term retention of gonads being higher in LMIC countries.

Conclusions: The likelihood of gonadectomy depends on the underlying diagnosis, sex of rearing and the geographical setting. Clinical benchmarks, which can be studied across all forms of DSD will allow a better understanding of the variation in the practice of gonadectomy.