Abstract. Somatomedin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were determined in patients with acromegaly, pituitary deficiency, prolactinoma, and Cushing's disease by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and for IGF-2 as well as a radioreceptor assay (RRA) with adult human brain plasma membranes and IGF-2 as ligand. The mean value of RIA-IGF-2 (31 ± 1.6 ng/ml) predominated over that of RIA-IGF-1 (5.8 ± 0.3 ng/ml), but 10 times higher levels were found by RRA-IGF-2. Patients with acromegaly were not found to have higher values than those with GH deficiency even after corrections were made for possible leakage across the blood-CSF barrier. No correlations were found between CSF somatomedin levels determined by different techniques and immunoreactive IGF-1 or GH in the peripheral circulation except for a positive correlation between CSF RIA-IGF-2 and serum IGF-1 in patients with acromegaly. These findings suggest that somatomedins in CSF consist primarily of IGF-2-like peptides which are derived from production within the central nervous system or pituitary gland rather than from transport across the blood-CSF barrier.
Maria Bückström, Kerstin Hall and Vicki Sara
Maria C Thorén, Inga-Lena Wivall-Helleryd, Werner F Blum and Kerstin E Hall
Thorén MC, Wivall-Helleryd I-L. Blum WF, Hall KE. Effects of repeated subcutaneous administration of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;131:33–40. ISSN 0804–4643
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) circulates bound to specific binding proteins (BPs) that modulate its effects at target cells. Hypoglycemia alters the serum levels of insulin-dependent IGFBPs and thus modifies the IGF-I action. We administered recombinant IGF-I (40 μg/kg body wt, from Kabi Pharmacia) in a morning dose (08.00 h) for seven consecutive days to six patients (21–47 years) with panhypopituitarism. This dose did not lead to hypoglycemia. Repeated blood sampling was performed on days 1 and 7, otherwise morning samples were drawn. The mean serum total IGF-I was maximal 3–4 h after the injection. A higher peak and basal value (p < 0.05) was observed on day 7 when compared to that observed on day 1. The concentrations were 237 vs 190 μg/l and 43 vs 22 μg/l. The mean free IGF-I increased concomitantly to 17 and 20 μg/l after 2–3 h on days 1 and 7. After 4 h, IGF-II was decreased (p <0.05) from 340 to 291 μg/l on day 1 and from 341 to 252 μg/l on day 7. The IGF-I area under the curve on days 1 and 7 was correlated to the IGFBP-3 levels. Only the patient with the highest IGFBP-3 level obtained IGF-I levels above 100 μg/l for 24 h. In spite of unchanged glucose levels, there was a modest suppression of insulin levels (p < 0.05) between 0 and 4 h from 102 to 78 pmol/l on day 1 and from 90 to 60 pmol/l on day 7 when the subjects were fasting. A small decline of mean potassium concentrations was found 2–6 h after the injection on day 1. During a week with daily injections, the morning serum IGF-I increased slightly in comparison to basal levels but no significant change in morning values of IGFBP-1, -2, -3, glucose and insulin were observed. Serum urea, creatinine, cholesterol and free fatty acid decreased significantly, indicating metabolic effects of IGF-I. Thus IGF-I has metabolic effects in doses not leading to hypoglycemia. To achieve a normal diurnal IGF-I level, recombinant IGF-I should be administered two or three times per 24 h in subjects with subnormal IGFBP-3 levels.
Marja Thorén, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
Goce Spasovski, Raymond Vanholder, Bruno Allolio, Djillali Annane, Steve Ball, Daniel Bichet, Guy Decaux, Wiebke Fenske, Ewout J Hoorn, Carole Ichai, Michael Joannidis, Alain Soupart, Robert Zietse, Maria Haller, Sabine van der Veer, Wim Van Biesen and Evi Nagler
Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting with a range of conditions. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in widely different conditions and the fact that hyponatraemia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution- and speciality-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. To obtain a common and holistic view, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) and the European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA–EDTA), represented by European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), have developed the Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia. In addition to a rigorous approach to methodology and evaluation, we were keen to ensure that the document focused on patient-important outcomes and included utility for clinicians involved in everyday practice.