Adriana G Ioachimescu, Maria Fleseriu, Andrew R Hoffman, T Brooks Vaughan III and Laurence Katznelson
Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the main treatment for patients with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Recently, an increasing number of reports emphasized DAs’ psychological side effects, either de novo or as exacerbations of prior psychiatric disease.
Review of prospective and retrospective studies (PubMed 1976, September 2018) evaluating the psychological profile of DA-treated patients with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Case series and case reports of psychiatric complications were also reviewed.
Most studies were cross-sectional and had a control group of healthy volunteers or patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. There were few prospective studies, with/without control group, that included small numbers of patients. Compared with controls, patients with hyperprolactinemia generally had worse quality of life, anxiety, depression and certain personality traits. Patients receiving DAs had higher impulsivity scores than normoprolactinemic controls. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) were reported in both genders, with hypersexuality mostly in men. Multiple ICDs were sometimes reported in the same patient, usually reversible after DA discontinuation. In case reports, DA therapy was temporally associated with severe depression, manic episodes or psychosis, which improved after discontinuation and administration of psychiatric medications. Gender type of DA, dose and duration of therapy did not correlate with occurrence of psychiatric pathology.
Patients with hyperprolactinemia receiving DAs may develop changes in mood and behavior regardless of prior psychiatric history. Increased awareness for ICDs, depression, mania and other types of psychosis is needed by all physicians who prescribe DAs. Larger prospective controlled clinical studies are needed to delineate prevalence, risk stratification and management.
Ilan Shimon, Raquel S Jallad, Maria Fleseriu, Chris G Yedinak, Yona Greenman and Marcello D Bronstein
Patients with acromegaly usually harbor macroadenomas measuring between 10 and 30 mm in maximal diameter. Giant (adenoma size ≥40 mm) GH-secreting pituitary tumors are rarely encountered and the aim of this study is to analyze different methods for managing them.
Design and methods
We have identified 34 patients (15 men and 19 females) with giant adenomas among 762 subjects (4.5%) with acromegaly in our records, and characterized their clinical characteristics and response to treatment.
Mean age at diagnosis was 34.9±12.5 years (range, 16–67 years). Mean adenoma size was 49.4±9.4 mm (range, 40–80 mm); 30 adenomas showed cavernous sinus invasion and 32 had suprasellar extension. Twenty-nine (85%) patients had visual field defects. Mean baseline IGF1 was 3.4±1.8×ULN. All patients except one underwent pituitary surgery (one to three procedures), but none achieved hormonal remission following first surgery. Among the 28 subjects with visual disturbances, 14 recovered post-operatively and 13 improved. Treatment with somatostatin analogs was given to all patients after surgical failure. Six achieved remission, nine others were partially controlled (IGF1<1.5×ULN; 3/9 when combined with cabergoline), and 17 did not respond (two were lost). Nine patients were treated with pegvisomant, alone (n=4) or in combination with somatostatin analogs (n=5); five are in remission and two are partially controlled. Pasireotide-LAR achieved hormonal remission in one of the six patients. Currently, after a mean follow-up period of 8.9 years, 17 patients are in biochemical remission, eight are partially controlled, and seven are uncontrolled (two were lost to follow-up).
Giant GH-secreting adenomas are invasive, uncontrolled by surgery, and respond poorly to medical treatment. Aggressive multimodal therapy is critical for their management, enhancing control rate and biochemical remission.