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Marek Ruchala, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Ariadna Zybek, Jerzy Moczko, Agata Czarnywojtek, Grzegorz Kaminski and Jerzy Sowinski

Objective

Reports on sonoelastography, which provide an objective estimation of tissue elasticity, are scarce in terms of thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the applicability of sonoelastography in different types of thyroiditis.

Design

The study assessed and compared the thyroid tissue stiffness in patients with acute thyroiditis (AT), subacute thyroiditis (SAT), and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) with healthy control subjects (CS), followed up for 10 weeks.

Methods

The study group consisted of two patients with AT, 18 patients with SAT, 18 patients with CAT, and 40 CS matched for age and gender. Sonoelastography was performed at baseline, at a 4-week follow-up during treatment, and at 10 weeks following diagnosis and treatment initiation.

Results

Thyroid tissue stiffness was higher in SAT at baseline (214.26±32.5 kPa) in comparison with values recorded at a 4-week follow-up (45.92±17.4 kPa) and at 10 weeks following diagnosis and treatment initiation (21.65±5.3 kPa, P<0.0001). Baseline thyroid stiffness in SAT was higher than that found in CAT (36.15±18.7 kPa, P<0.0001) and CS (16.18±5.4 kPa, P<0.0001). In the remission of SAT, thyroid stiffness was lower than that found in CAT (P=0.006), while it was higher than that in CS (P=0.0008). No difference was observed between thyroid stiffness in SAT at 4-week follow-up and in CAT. Patients with CAT presented higher thyroid stiffness than CS (P<0.0001), which was not influenced by l-thyroxine treatment. Thyroid stiffness in patients with AT was 216.6 and 241.9 kPa at baseline; after treatment, it decreased to 17.93 and 85.348 kPa respectively.

Conclusions

Sonoelastography may assist in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of AT, SAT and CAT, as well as in the differentiation of the various types of thyroiditis.

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Marek Ruchala, Ewelina Szczepanek, Witold Szaflarski, Jerzy Moczko, Agata Czarnywojtek, Leszek Pietz, Michal Nowicki, Marek Niedziela, Maciej Zabel, Josef Köhrle and Jerzy Sowinski

Objective

Thyroid hemiagenesis (THA) is an anomaly resulting from the developmental failure of one thyroid lobe. Etiopathogenesis, clinical significance, and management of patients in whom THA is diagnosed are still a matter of debate. The aim of the study is to provide the first systematic analysis of a large cohort of subjects with THA.

Design

Forty patients with THA are described in comparison to a control group of 80 subjects with fully developed thyroid gland.

Methods

Serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. In 37 patients, thyroid ultrasonography and Tc-99m thyroid scintiscan were performed, followed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy if indicated. The remaining archival three cases were diagnosed with the use of I-131 scintiscan under basal conditions and after TSH stimulation.

Results

Patients with THA, while usually clinically euthyroid, presented with significantly higher levels of TSH and FT3 as well as with higher FT3/FT4 concentration in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, a higher incidence of associated functional, morphological, and autoimmune thyroid disorders in patients with THA was observed when compared to subjects with bilobate thyroid (P<0.05).

Conclusions

Our results revealed that individuals with THA are more likely to develop thyroid pathology. The observed high incidence of associated pathologies is presumably due to long-lasting TSH overstimulation. Therefore, THA diagnosis should be followed by systematic observation and adequate levothyroxine treatment in patients with elevated TSH level.

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Cheol Ryong Ku, Thierry Brue, Katharina Schilbach, Stanislav Ignatenko, Sandor Magony, Yoon-Sok Chung, Byung-Joon Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Ho-Cheol Kang, Jung Hee Kim, Min Seon Kim, Aldona Kowalska, Marek Bolanowski, Marek Ruchala, Svetozar Damjanovic, Juraj Payer, Yun Jung Choi, Su Jin Heo, Tae Kyoung Kim, MinKyu Heo, Joan Lee and Eun Jig Lee

Objective

Hybrid Fc-fused rhGH (GX-H9) is a long-acting recombinant human growth hormone (GH) under clinical development for both adults and children with GH deficiency (GHD). We compared the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of weekly and every other week (EOW) dosages of GX-H9 with those of daily GH administration in adult GHD (AGHD) patients.

Design

This was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled and dose-escalation study conducted in 16 endocrinology centers in Europe and Korea.

Methods

Forty-five AGHD patients with or without prior GH treatment were enrolled. Patients with prior GH treatments were required to have received the last GH administration at least 1 month prior to randomization. Subjects were sequentially assigned to treatment groups. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to each treatment group and randomly assigned to receive either GX-H9 or Genotropin (4:1 ratio). GX-H9 dosage regimens for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 0.1 mg/kg weekly, 0.3 mg/kg EOW and 0.2 mg/kg EOW, respectively. All Genotropin-assigned subjects received 6 µg/kg Genotropin, regardless of treatment group. Main outcome analyses included measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity.

Results

Mean GX-H9 peak and total exposure increased with an increase in dose after a single-dose administration. The mean IGF-I response was sustained above baseline over the intended dose interval of 168 h for the weekly and 336 h for the EOW GX-H9 groups. Safety profiles and immunogenicity were not different across the treatment groups and with Genotropin.

Conclusions

GX-H9 has the potential for up to twice-monthly administration.