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Marek Ruchala, Ewelina Szczepanek, Witold Szaflarski, Jerzy Moczko, Agata Czarnywojtek, Leszek Pietz, Michal Nowicki, Marek Niedziela, Maciej Zabel, Josef Köhrle, and Jerzy Sowinski


Thyroid hemiagenesis (THA) is an anomaly resulting from the developmental failure of one thyroid lobe. Etiopathogenesis, clinical significance, and management of patients in whom THA is diagnosed are still a matter of debate. The aim of the study is to provide the first systematic analysis of a large cohort of subjects with THA.


Forty patients with THA are described in comparison to a control group of 80 subjects with fully developed thyroid gland.


Serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. In 37 patients, thyroid ultrasonography and Tc-99m thyroid scintiscan were performed, followed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy if indicated. The remaining archival three cases were diagnosed with the use of I-131 scintiscan under basal conditions and after TSH stimulation.


Patients with THA, while usually clinically euthyroid, presented with significantly higher levels of TSH and FT3 as well as with higher FT3/FT4 concentration in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, a higher incidence of associated functional, morphological, and autoimmune thyroid disorders in patients with THA was observed when compared to subjects with bilobate thyroid (P<0.05).


Our results revealed that individuals with THA are more likely to develop thyroid pathology. The observed high incidence of associated pathologies is presumably due to long-lasting TSH overstimulation. Therefore, THA diagnosis should be followed by systematic observation and adequate levothyroxine treatment in patients with elevated TSH level.

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Angela K Lucas-Herald, Jillian Bryce, Andreas Kyriakou, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Wiebke Arlt, Laura Audí, Antonio Balsamo, Federico Baronio, Silvano Bertelloni, Markus Bettendorf, Antonia Brooke, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Justin Davies, Gloria Hermann, Liat de Vries, Ieuan A Hughes, Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Feyza Darendeliler, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Mona Ellaithi, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Simona Fica, Lavinia Stejereanu, Aneta Gawlik, Evgenia Globa, Nataliya Zelinska, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine Hannema, Olaf Hiort, P-m Holterhus, Violeta Iotova, Vilhelm Mladenov, Vandana Jain, Rajni Sharma, Farida Jennane, Colin Johnston, Gil Guerra-Junior, Daniel Konrad, Odile Gaisl, Nils P Krone, Ruth Krone, Katherine Lachlan, Dejun Li, Corina Lichiardopol, Lidka Lisá, Renata Levoni Markosyan, Inas Mazen, Klaus Mohnike, Marek Niedziela, Anna Nordenstrom, Rodolfo A Rey, Mars Skae, Lloyd JW Tack, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Naomi Weintrob, Martine Cools, and S Faisal Ahmed

Objectives: To determine trends in clinical practice for individuals with DSD requiring gonadectomy.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: Information regarding age at gonadectomy according to diagnosis; reported sex; time of presentation to specialist center; and location of center from cases reported to the International DSD Registry and who were over 16 years old in January 2019.

Results: Data regarding gonadectomy were available in 668 (88%) individuals from 44 centers. Of these, 248 (37%) (median age (range) 24 (17, 75) years) were male and 420 (63%) (median age (range) 26 (16, 86) years) were female. Gonadectomy was reported from 36 centers in 351/668 cases (53%). Females were more likely to undergo gonadectomy (n=311, p<0.0001). The indication for gonadectomy was reported in 268 (76%). The most common indication was mitigation of tumour risk in 172 (64%). Variations in the practice of gonadectomy were observed; of the 351 cases from 36 centers, 17 (5%) at 9 centers had undergone gonadectomy before their first presentation to the specialist center. Median age at gonadectomy of cases from high income countries and low/middle income countries (LMIC) was 13.0 yrs (0.1, 68) years and 16.5 yrs (1, 28), respectively (p<0.0001) with the likelihood of long-term retention of gonads being higher in LMIC countries.

Conclusions: The likelihood of gonadectomy depends on the underlying diagnosis, sex of rearing and the geographical setting. Clinical benchmarks, which can be studied across all forms of DSD will allow a better understanding of the variation in the practice of gonadectomy.