Acute adrenal failure is a potentially fatal condition if overlooked. Occasionally, acute adrenal insufficiency may ensue from bilateral adrenal haemorrhage in patients with known antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). APS is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis, pregnancy complications and detection of autoantibodies to phospholipids. This syndrome may be associated with non-organ specific diseases (e.g. connective tissue disorders) or with malignancies, but it may also appear in isolated form (primary APS). In a very few cases the heralding manifestation is given by adrenal failure. We report here a 63-year-old man presenting with acute adrenal insufficiency as the opening clinical manifestation of an APS. We also carried out a computer-aided search of the literature to identify all cases of primary adrenal failure as the first-recognized expression of a primary APS, a condition that not so infrequently may be tackled by endocrinologists. 20 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The great majority of them were males (75%) with a mean age of 42 years. Abdominal pain was present in 14 patients, followed by fever (13 patients) and hypotension (12 patients). The main morphological findings by computed tomography or magnetic resonance were consistent with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage in 11 patients. Lupus anticoagulant was present in all of the 19 tested patients. Our observations emphasize the importance in the assessment of clotting times, and possibly of antiphospholipid antibodies, in all patients with diagnosis of rapidly progressive adrenal failure and concurrent abdominal pain.
Fabio Presotto, Francesca Fornasini, Corrado Betterle, Giovanni Federspil and Marco Rossato
Carlo Foresta, Roberto Mioni, Paola Bordon, Francesco Gottardello, Andrea Nogara and Marco Rossato
Foresta C, Mioni R, Bordon P, Gottardello F, Nogara A, Rossato M. Erythropoietin and testicular steroidogenesis: the role of second messengers. Eur J Endocrinol 1995;132:103–8. ISSN 0804–4643
It has been demonstrated that erythropoietin (EPO) influences rat and human Leydig cell steroidogenesis, stimulating testosterone production through a direct and specific receptor-mediated mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) exerts its stimulatory effect on rat Leydig cells. Recombinant human EPO did not induce, at any dose tested (10−10 to 10−13 mol/l), an increase in either cAMP or cGMP, suggesting that in Leydig cells the effect of rHuEPO does not involve the adenylate or guanylate–cyclase systems. The role of transmembrane calcium flux in rHuEPO-stimulated steroidogenesis was studied by evaluating the effect of calcium channel blocker, verapamil, and by the 45Ca2+ uptake method. Verapamil did not influence rHuEPO-induced testosterone secretion and rHuEPO did not modify calcium recycling, indicating that calcium transmembrane flux is not involved in the rHuEPO effect. The protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (10, 30, 100 and 300 nmol/l) inhibited rHuEPO-stimulated testicular steroidogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. This indirect evidence suggests that the stimulatory effect of rHuEPO on rat Leydig cells may involve protein kinase C activation.
Carlo Foresta, Institute of Internal Medicine, Via Ospedale Civile 105, 35128 Padova, Italy