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  • Author: Marcello Lucchese x
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Jinous Samavat, Enrico Facchiano, Marcello Lucchese, Gianni Forti, Edoardo Mannucci, Mario Maggi and Michaela Luconi

Objective

Male obesity is often associated with reduced levels of circulating total (TT) and calculated free testosterone (cFT), with normal/reduced gonadotropins. Bariatric surgery often improves sex steroid and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bariatric surgery on waist circumference (WC) and BMI, and on TT levels, in morbidly obese men, stratified, according to the gonadal state, in eugonadal and hypogonadal (TT<8 nmol/l) subjects.

Design

A cohort of morbidly obese patients (29 with hypogonadism (HG) and 26 without) undergoing bariatric surgery (37, 10, 6, and 2, with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, biliopancreatic diversion and gastric sleeve, respectively) was studied at 6 and 12 months from the operation.

Methods

Anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, WC) and sex hormones (gonadotropins, TT, cFT, estradiol (E2), SHBG) were assessed.

Results

WC was the only parameter significantly correlated with androgens, but not with E2, SHBG, and gonadotropins, at baseline. After surgery, a significant increase in TT, cFT, and SHBG, accompanied by a decrease in E2, was evident in the two groups. However, both TT and cFT, but not E2, SHBG, and gonadotropin variations, were significantly higher in the hypogonadal group at follow-up, with an overall 93% complete recovery from HG. Reduction in WC, but not BMI, was significantly greater in hypogonadal men (ΔWC=−29.4±21.6 vs −14.4±17.4 at 12 months, P=0.047).

Conclusions

Recovery from obesity-associated HG is one of the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery in morbidly obese men. The present findings suggest that the gonadal state is a predictor of WC decrease after bariatric surgery.

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Giovanni Corona, Giulia Rastrelli, Matteo Monami, Farid Saad, Michaela Luconi, Marcello Lucchese, Enrico Facchiano, Alessandra Sforza, Gianni Forti, Edoardo Mannucci and Mario Maggi

Objective

Few randomized clinical studies have evaluated the impact of diet and physical activity on testosterone levels in obese men with conflicting results. Conversely, studies on bariatric surgery in men generally have shown an increase in testosterone levels. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available trials on the effect of body weight loss on sex hormones levels.

Design

Meta-analysis.

Methods

An extensive Medline search was performed including the following words: ‘testosterone’, ‘diet’, ‘weight loss’, ‘bariatric surgery’, and ‘males’. The search was restricted to data from January 1, 1969 up to August 31, 2012.

Results

Out of 266 retrieved articles, 24 were included in the study. Of the latter, 22 evaluated the effect of diet or bariatric surgery, whereas two compared diet and bariatric surgery. Overall, both a low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery are associated with a significant (P<0.0001) increase in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin-bound and -unbound testosterone levels (total testosterone (TT)), with bariatric surgery being more effective in comparison with the low-calorie diet (TT increase: 8.73 (6.51–10.95) vs 2.87 (1.68–4.07) for bariatric surgery and the low-calorie diet, respectively; both P<0.0001 vs baseline). Androgen rise is greater in those patients who lose more weight as well as in younger, non-diabetic subjects with a greater degree of obesity. Body weight loss is also associated with a decrease in estradiol and an increase in gonadotropins levels. Multiple regression analysis shows that the degree of body weight loss is the best determinant of TT rise (B=2.50±0.98, P=0.029).

Conclusions

These data show that weight loss is associated with an increase in both bound and unbound testosterone levels. The normalization of sex hormones induced by body weight loss is a possible mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of surgery in morbid obesity.