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Rikke Beck Jensen, Ajay Thankamony, Susan M O'Connell, Jeremy Kirk, Malcolm Donaldson, Sten-A Ivarsson, Olle Söder, Edna Roche, Hilary Hoey, David B Dunger and Anders Juul


Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies.


In the North European Small-for-Gestational-Age Study (NESGAS), 92 short pre-pubertal children born SGA were randomised after 1 year of high-dose GH treatment (67 μg/kg per day) to three different regimens: high dose (67 μg/kg per day), low dose (35 μg/kg per day) or IGF1 titration.


The average dose during the second year of the randomised trial did not differ between the IGF1 titration group (38 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.019) and the low-dose group (35 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.002; P=0.46), but there was a wide variation in the IGF1 titration group (range 10–80 μg/kg per day). The IGF1 titration group had significantly lower height gain (0.17 SDS, s.d. 0.18) during the second year of the randomised trial compared with the high-dose group (0.46 SDS, s.d. 0.25), but not significantly lower than the low-dose group (0.23 SDS, s.d. 0.15; P=0.17). The IGF1 titration group had lower IGF1 levels after 2 years of the trial (mean 1.16, s.d. 1.24) compared with both the low-dose (mean 1.76, s.d. 1.48) and the high-dose (mean 2.97, s.d. 1.63) groups.


IGF1 titration of GH dose in SGA children proved less effective than current dosing strategies. IGF1 titration resulted in physiological IGF1 levels with a wide range of GH dose and a poorer growth response, which indicates the role of IGF1 resistance and highlights the heterogeneity of short SGA children.

Open access

Wafa Kallali, Ewan Gray, Muhammad Zain Mehdi, Robert Lindsay, Louise A Metherell, Federica Buonocore, Jenifer P Suntharalingham, John C Achermann and Malcolm Donaldson


CYP11A1 mutations cause P450 side-chain cleavage (scc) deficiency, a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with a wide clinical spectrum. We detail the phenotype and evolution in a male sibship identified by HaloPlex targeted capture array.

Family study

The youngest of three brothers from a non-consanguineous Scottish family presented with hyperpigmentation at 3.7 years. Investigation showed grossly impaired glucocorticoid function with ACTH elevation, moderately impaired mineralocorticoid function, and normal external genitalia. The older brothers were found to be pigmented also, with glucocorticoid impairment but normal electrolytes. Linkage studies in 2002 showed that all three brothers had inherited the same critical regions of the maternal X chromosome suggesting an X-linked disorder, but analysis of NR0B1 (DAX-1, adrenal hypoplasia) and ABCD1 (adrenoleukodystrophy) were negative.

In 2016, next-generation sequencing revealed compound heterozygosity for the rs6161 variant in CYP11A1 (c.940G>A, p.Glu314Lys), together with a severely disruptive frameshift mutation (c.790_802del, K264Lfs*5). The brothers were stable on hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone replacement, testicular volumes (15–20 mL), and serum testosterone levels (24.7, 33.3, and 27.2 nmol/L) were normal, but FSH (41.2 µ/L) was elevated in the proband. The latter had undergone left orchidectomy for suspected malignancy at the age of 25 years and was attending a fertility clinic for oligospermia. Initial histology was reported as showing nodular Leydig cell hyperplasia. However, histological review using CD56 staining confirmed testicular adrenal rest cell tumour (TART).


This kinship with partial P450scc deficiency demonstrates the importance of precise diagnosis in primary adrenal insufficiency to ensure appropriate counselling and management, particularly of TART.