Marine Ollivier, Magalie Haissaguerre, Amandine Ferriere, and Antoine Tabarin
Magalie Haissaguerre, Marie Puerto, Marie-Laure Nunes, and Antoine Tabarin
Jacques Young, Magalie Haissaguerre, Oceana Viera-Pinto, Olivier Chabre, Eric Baudin, and Antoine Tabarin
Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) is rare but is frequently a severe condition because of the intensity of the hypercortisolism that may be dissociated from the tumoral condition. EAS should often be considered as an endocrine emergency requiring an emergency response both in terms of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions. Patient management is complex and necessitates dual skills, in the diagnosis and treatment of CS and in the specific management of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Therefore, initial management should be performed ideally by experienced endocrinology teams in collaboration with specialized hormonal laboratory, modern imaging platforms and intensive care units. Diagnostic procedures vary according to the endocrine and tumoral contexts but should be reduced to a minimum in intense hypercortisolism. Preventive and curative treatments of cortisol-induced comorbidities, non-specific management of hypercortisolism and etiological treatments should be considered simultaneously. Therapeutic strategies vary according to (1.) the intensity of hypercortisolism, the general condition of the patient and associated comorbidities and (2.) the tumoral status, ranging from resectable ACTH secreting tumors to non-resectable metastatic endocrine tumors or occult tumors. The ideal treatment is complete excision of the ACTH-secreting tumor that can be performed rapidly or after preoperative preparation using cortisol-lowering drugs. When this is not possible, the therapeutic strategy should be discussed by a multidisciplinary experienced team in a personalized perspective and include variable combinations of pharmacological agents, bilateral adrenalectomy and non-specific tumoral interventions. Here we discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic strategies including the modern, currently available tools and emphasize on the operational effectiveness of care.
Lucie Coppin, Amandine Ferrière, Michel Crépin, Magalie Haissaguerre, Miriam Ladsous, Antoine Tabarin, and Marie-Françoise Odou
Julie Brossaud, Léa Charret, Delia De Angeli, Magalie Haissaguerre, Amandine Ferriere, Marie Puerto, Blandine Gatta-Cherifi, Jean-Benoît Corcuff, and Antoine Tabarin
Hair cortisol (HF) and cortisone (HE) measurements reflect tissular exposure to cortisol over months and are increased in overt Cushing’s syndrome (CS). No data is available in mild CS. We compared the diagnostic performance of HF and HE between patients with overt or mild CS.
Single centre retrospective study.
HF&HE were measured by LC-MS/MS in 48 consecutive adult females with Cushing’s disease (CD), ectopic ACTH syndrome, secreting adenomas and carcinomas, and adrenal incidentalomas. All had impaired dexamethasone suppression tests. Overt CS (n = 25) was diagnosed in front of specific symptoms, a mean UFC (>1.5 ULN) and increased midnight serum cortisol or salivary cortisol. Mild CS (n = 23) was diagnosed in patients lacking specific symptoms and displaying at least one additional biological abnormality including mildly increased UFC (≤1.5 ULN), increased midnight serum cortisol or salivary cortisol and suppressed plasma ACTH in patients with adrenal tumours. In this study, 84 healthy subjects and obese patients served as controls.
HF and HE showed roughly similar performance in overt CS (92 and 100% sensitivity, 91 and 99% specificity, respectively). HF and HE were lower in mild CS but higher than in controls (P < 0.01). HE was correlated with midnight serum cortisol (P < 0.02) and volume of adrenal incidentalomas (P < 0.04) but not with UFC. HF and HE had 59% and 68% sensitivity, and 79 and 94% specificity, respectively, for the diagnosis of mild CS. Contrary to UFC, both HF and HE were in the range of overt CS in 11/23 patients with mild CS. Patients with mild CS and increased HE required more antihypertensive treatments and showed worser lipid profiles than patients with normal HE.
HF and HE measurement performed better in overt than in mild CS but is a useful adjunct to diagnose mild CS and to identify adrenocortical incidentalomas responsible for excessive cortisol exposure.
Hélène Lasolle, Christine Cortet, Fréderic Castinetti, Lucie Cloix, Philippe Caron, Brigitte Delemer, Rachel Desailloud, Christel Jublanc, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Jean-Louis Sadoul, Luc Taillandier, Marie Batisse-Lignier, Fabrice Bonnet, Nathalie Bourcigaux, Damien Bresson, Olivier Chabre, Philippe Chanson, Cyril Garcia, Magalie Haissaguerre, Yves Reznik, Sophie Borot, Chiara Villa, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Stephan Gaillard, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Guillaume Assié, and Gérald Raverot
Only few retrospective studies have reported an efficacy rate of temozolomide (TMZ) in pituitary tumors (PT), all around 50%. However, the long-term survival of treated patients is rarely evaluated. We therefore aimed to describe the use of TMZ on PT in clinical practice and evaluate the long-term survival.
Multicenter retrospective study by members of the French Society of Endocrinology.
Forty-three patients (14 women) treated with TMZ between 2006 and 2016 were included. Most tumors were corticotroph (n = 23) or lactotroph (n = 13), and 14 were carcinomas. Clinical/pathological characteristics of PT, as well as data from treatment evaluation and from the last follow-up were recorded. A partial response was considered as a decrease in the maximal tumor diameter by more than 30% and/or in the hormonal rate by more than 50% at the end of treatment.
The median treatment duration was 6.5 cycles (range 2–24), using a standard regimen for most and combined radiotherapy for six. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were considered as responders. Silent tumor at diagnosis was associated with a poor response. The median follow-up after the end of treatment was 16 months (0–72). Overall survival was significantly higher among responders (P = 0.002); however, ten patients relapsed 5 months (0–57) after the end of TMZ treatment, five in whom TMZ was reinitiated without success.
Patients in our series showed a 51.2% response rate to TMZ, with an improved survival among responders despite frequent relapses. Our study highlights the high variability and lack of standardization of treatment protocols.