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Free access

Charumathi Baskaran, Kamryn T Eddy, Karen K Miller, Erinne Meenaghan, Madhusmita Misra and Elizabeth A Lawson

Objective

Leptin secretory dynamics across the weight spectrum and their relationship with disordered eating psychopathology have not been studied. Our objective was to compare leptin secretory dynamics in 13 anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 overweight/obese (OB) and 12 normal-weight women using deconvolution analysis.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary referral center, serum leptin levels were obtained every 20 min from 2000 to 0800 h. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure percent body fat. Disordered eating psychopathology was assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2).

Results

The groups differed for basal leptin secretion (BASAL) (P=0.02). Mean leptin pulse amplitude, pulse mass, total pulsatile secretion (TPS) and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly different between groups before and after adjustment for BASAL (P<0.0001 for all). Leptin AUC correlated strongly with TPS (r=0.97, P<0.0001) and less with BASAL (r=0.35, P=0.03). On multivariate analysis, only TPS was a significant predictor of leptin AUC (P<0.0001). TPS was inversely associated with most EDE-Q and EDI-2 parameters and the associations remained significant for EDE-Q eating concern (P=0.01), and EDI-2 asceticism, ineffectiveness and social insecurity (P<0.05) after adjusting for BASAL. These relationships were not significant when controlled for percent body fat.

Conclusion

Secretory dynamics of leptin differ across weight spectrum, with mean pulse amplitude, mean pulse mass and TPS being low in AN and high in OB. Pulsatile, rather than basal secretion, is the major contributor to leptin AUC. Decreased pulsatile leptin is associated with disordered eating psychopathology, possibly reflecting low percent body fat in AN.

Free access

Elizabeth A Lawson, Kamryn T Eddy, Daniel Donoho, Madhusmita Misra, Karen K Miller, Erinne Meenaghan, Janet Lydecker, David Herzog and Anne Klibanski

Objective

Disordered eating occurs in women at both weight extremes of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Cortisol, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, and ghrelin are hormones involved in appetite and feeding behavior that vary with weight and body fat. Abnormal levels of these hormones have been reported in women with AN, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), and obesity. The relationship between appetite-regulating hormones and disordered eating psychopathology is unknown. We therefore studied the relationship between orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones and disordered eating psychopathology in women across a range of weights.

Design

A cross-sectional study of 65 women, 18–45 years: 16 with AN, 12 normal-weight with HA, 17 overweight or obese, and 20 normal-weight in good health.

Methods

Two validated measures of disordered eating psychopathology, the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), were administered. Fasting PYY, leptin, and ghrelin levels were measured; cortisol levels were pooled from serum samples obtained every 20 min from 2000 to 0800 h.

Results

Cortisol and PYY levels were positively associated with disordered eating psychopathology including restraint, eating concerns, and body image disturbance, independent of body mass index (BMI). Although leptin levels were negatively associated with disordered eating psychopathology, these relationships were not significant after controlling for BMI. Ghrelin levels were generally not associated with EDE-Q or EDI-2 scores.

Conclusions

Higher levels of cortisol and PYY are associated with disordered eating psychopathology independent of BMI in women across the weight spectrum, suggesting that abnormalities in appetite regulation may be associated with specific eating disorder pathologies.

Free access

Elizabeth A Lawson, Kathryn E Ackerman, Nara Mendes Estella, Gabriela Guereca, Lisa Pierce, Patrick M Sluss, Mary L Bouxsein, Anne Klibanski and Madhusmita Misra

Objective

Preclinical data indicate that oxytocin, a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and secreted into the peripheral circulation, is anabolic to bone. Oxytocin knockout mice have severe osteoporosis, and administration of oxytocin improves bone microarchitecture in these mice. Data suggest that exercise may modify oxytocin secretion, but this has not been studied in athletes in relation to bone. We therefore investigated oxytocin secretion and its association with bone microarchitecture and strength in young female athletes.

Design

Cross-sectional study of 45 females, 14–21 years (15 amenorrheic athletes (AA), 15 eumenorrheic athletes (EA), and 15 nonathletes (NA)), of comparable bone age and BMI.

Methods

We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT to assess bone microarchitecture and finite element analysis to estimate bone strength at the weight-bearing distal tibia and non-weight-bearing ultradistal radius. Serum samples were obtained every 60 min, 2300–0700 h, and pooled for an integrated measure of nocturnal oxytocin secretion. Midnight and 0700 h samples were used to assess diurnal variation of oxytocin.

Results

Nocturnal oxytocin levels were lower in AA and EA than in NA. After controlling for estradiol, the difference in nocturnal oxytocin between AA and NA remained significant. Midnight and 0700 h oxytocin levels did not differ between groups. At the tibia and radius, AA had impaired microarchitecture compared with NA. In AA, nocturnal oxytocin correlated strongly with trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, particularly at the non-weight-bearing radius. In regression models that include known predictors of microarchitecture in AA, oxytocin accounted for a substantial portion of the variability in microarchitectural and strength parameters.

Conclusions

Nocturnal oxytocin secretion is low in AA compared with NA and associated with site-dependent microarchitectural parameters. Oxytocin may contribute to hypoestrogenemic bone loss in AA.

Open access

Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Philippe F Backeljauw, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret C S Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Pierre Chatelain, Catherine S Choong, David R Clemmons, Laurie E Cohen, Pinchas Cohen, Jan Frystyk, Adda Grimberg, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Morey W Haymond, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Jeff M P Holly, Reiko Horikawa, Charlotte Höybye, Jens Otto L Jorgensen, Gudmundur Johannsson, Anders Juul, Laurence Katznelson, John J Kopchick, K O Lee, Kuk-Wha Lee, Xiaoping Luo, Shlomo Melmed, Bradley S Miller, Madhusmita Misra, Vera Popovic, Ron G Rosenfeld, Judith Ross, Richard J Ross, Paul Saenger, Christian J Strasburger, Michael O Thorner, Haim Werner and Kevin Yuen

Objective

The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH).

Participants

A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry.

Evidence

Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues.

Consensus process

Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors.

Conclusions

LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations.