The glucagonoma syndrome is a rare disease in which a typical skin disorder, necrolytic migratory erythema, is often one of the first presenting symptoms. Weight loss and diabetes mellitus are two other prevalent characteristics of this syndrome. Necrolytic migratory erythema belongs to the recently recognized family of deficiency dermatoses of which zinc deficiency, necrolytic acral erythema and pellagra are also members. It is typically characterized on skin biopsies by necrolysis of the upper epidermis with vacuolated keratinocytes. In persistent hyperglucagonemia, excessive stimulation of basic metabolic pathways results in diabetes mellitus at the expense of tissue glycogen stores, and muscle and fat mass. Multiple (essential) nutrient and vitamin B deficiencies develop, which contribute to the dermatosis. In addition, glucagonomas may produce various other products, like pancreatic polypeptide, that add to the catabolic effects of glucagon.
AP van Beek, ER de Haas, WA van Vloten, CJ Lips, JF Roijers and MR Canninga-van Dijk
PS van Dam, A van Gils, MR Canninga-van Dijk, EJ de Koning, LJ Hofland and WW de Herder
OBJECTIVE: We describe a patient with an ACTH-producing phaeochromocytoma who initially presented with hypercortisolism and normal catecholamine concentrations, followed by near-normalisation of ACTH secretion and massive catecholamine secretion. In vitro studies were carried out on the tumour to evaluate the interaction between the tumour cells and normal adrenal cortex. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 30-year-old man initially presented with severe hypercortisolism, biochemical evidence of ectopic ACTH production, a tumour in the right adrenal gland without a hyperintense signal on the T2-weighted images at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, and normal urinary metanephrine concentrations. After 6 months, ACTH production had almost completely resolved, but the patient developed severe hypertension and excess catecholamines. At repeated MRI-scanning, the T2-weighted images showed a hyperintense signal, in agreement with the diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma. Although the initial T1-weighted images suggested bleeding in the adrenal tumour, no signs of bleeding were observed after surgical removal. The diagnosis of ACTH-producing phaeochromocytoma was histologically and immunohistochemically confirmed. Cultured cell suspensions of the tumour secreted ACTH, which stimulated cortisol production in the ipsilateral adrenocortical cells. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates that the biological activity of an ACTH-producing phaeochromocytoma can vary significantly in time, which may be the consequence of different stages of tumour differentiation.