AIM AND METHOD: Insulin resistance leading, in some cases, to glucose intolerance is an important contributory factor to the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to document changes in insulin sensitivity (IS) in a group of seven patients with acromegaly (three male, four female, mean+/-s.d. age 59+/-13 Years) treated initially with a stable dose of depot octreotide (OT; median dose 30 mg four times weekly, range 10-30 mg) for a median of 18 Months (range 16-19 Months) and who were then transferred to treatment with pegvisomant (median dose 15 mg daily, range 10-20 mg) for a median of 8 Months (range 7-9 Months). IS was assessed by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) using fasting glucose and insulin concentrations and by a short insulin tolerance test (sITT). Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Mean+/-s.d. serum IGF-I concentrations during therapy with OT and with pegvisomant were not statistically different (283+/-119 ng/ml on OT vs 191+/-39 ng/ml on pegvisomant (P=0.4)). However, mean+/-s.d. fasting plasma glucose fell from 6.2+/-1.0 mmol/l on OT to 5.2+/-0.6 mmol/l on pegvisomant (P=0.017) and was lower on pegvisomant in all seven patients. In four patients, fasting plasma glucose fell from values diagnostic of diabetes mellitus or impaired fasting glucose on OT to within the normal range on pegvisomant. Mean+/-s.d. peripheral IS (by sITT) increased from 139+/-39 micromol/l per min on OT to 169+/-59 micromol/l per min on pegvisomant (P=0.037). Mean+/-s.d. IS (by HOMA %S) was unchanged over the course of the study (149.1+/-43.7% on OT vs 139.9+/-76.6% on pegvisomant, P=0.28). Mean+/-s.d. pancreatic beta-cell secretory function (HOMA %B) improved significantly on pegvisomant compared with OT (49.4+/-19.2% vs 82.4+/-43.5%, P=0.01). No statistically significant change in total fat (P=0.3), % fat (P=0.28) or circulating non-esterified fatty acids (P=0.35) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: IS and glucose tolerance improved in patients converted from OT therapy to pegvisomant, without a change in body composition and even when serum IGF-I concentrations remained equally well controlled. This may be an important factor in the choice of medical therapy for patients with acromegaly.
WM Drake, SV Rowles, ME Roberts, FK Fode, GM Besser, JP Monson and PJ Trainer
M Vaxillaire, ME Pueyo, K Clement, J Fiet, J Timsit, J Philippe, JJ Robert, L Tappy, P Froguel and G Velho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin secretion and sensitivity in affected (diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance; n=7) and in unaffected (normal glucose tolerance; n=3) carriers of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (maturity-onset diabetes of the young-3 (MODY3)) gene mutations. METHODS: Insulin secretion was assessed by an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), hyperglycemic clamp and arginine test, and insulin sensitivity by an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results were compared with those of diabetic MODY2 (glucokinase-deficient) and control subjects. RESULTS: The amount of insulin secreted during an IVGTT was decreased in affected MODY3 subjects (46+/-24 (s.d.) pmol/kg body weight (BW)) as compared with values in MODY2 (120+/-49pmol/kg BW) and control (173+/-37pmol/kg BW; P=0.0004) subjects. The amount of insulin secreted during a 10mmol/l glucose clamp was decreased in affected MODY3 subjects (171+/-78pmol/kg BW) and MODY2 subjects (302+/-104pmol/kg BW) as compared with control subjects (770+/-199pmol/kg BW; P=0.0001). Insulin secretion in response to arginine was decreased in affected MODY3 subjects. Milder and heterogeneous defects were observed in the unaffected MODY3 subjects; the amount of insulin secreted during the hyperglycemic clamp was 40-79% of that of controls. The response to arginine was abnormally delayed. Insulin sensitivity was decreased in diabetic but not in non-diabetic MODY3 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-cell dysfunction in response to glucose and arginine is observed in affected and unaffected MODY3 subjects. The MODY3 and MODY2 subtypes present different insulin secretion profiles. Secondary insulin resistance might contribute to the chronic hyperglycemia of MODY3 patients and modulate their glucose tolerance.