OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether derangements in insulin pulsatility are related to the presence of insulin resistance or whether these changes occur only in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 26 obese, 11 NIDDM and 10 control subjects. The obese group was divided into a low insulin (plasma insulin <20 mU/l, OLI, 14 subjects) and a high insulin (OHI, 12 subjects) group. For pulsatility analysis blood was sampled every 2 min for 90 min. Pulsatility analysis was carried out using the PulsDetekt program. The insulin secretion randomness was quantified using interpulse interval deviation (IpID) and approximate entropy (ApEn). ApEn and ApEn normalized by s.d. of the individual insulin time series (nApEn) were calculated. Lower values of ApEn and IpID indicate more regular secretion. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to quantify insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Insulin pulses were significantly less regular in the OHI and the NIDDM groups compared with the control and the OLI groups (control: ApEn 0.54+/-0.16, nApEn 0.69+/-0.19, IpID 2.53+/-0.99; OLI: ApEn 0.64+/-0.12, nApEn 0. 79+/-0.15, IpID 2.92+/-1.09; OHI: ApEn 0.88+/-0.07, nApEn 0.92+/-0. 07, IpID 3.95+/-0.84; NIDDM: ApEn 0.92+/-0.16, nApEn 0.99+/-0.09, IpID 4.41+/-0.53; means +/- s.d.). There was no difference in the pulse regularity between the OHI and the NIDDM groups. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the reduction of insulin secretion regularity. Therefore irregular insulin secretion is related to a reduction in insulin sensitivity, and it is not unique to NIDDM.
M Zarkovic, J Ciric, M Stojanovic, Z Penezic, B Trbojevic, M Dresgic and M Nesovic
M Doknic, S Pekic, M Zarkovic, M Medic-Stojanoska, C Dieguez, F Casanueva and V Popovic
OBJECTIVE: It has recently been shown that increased body weight is associated with prolactinomas and that weight loss occurs with normalization of prolactin levels. On the other hand, decreased dopaminergic tone in humans is well correlated with obesity. The objective of this study was to correlate changes in prolactin levels with leptin and body mass index (BMI) in patients with prolactinomas treated with the long-acting dopamine agonist bromocriptine (BC). METHODS: Eleven female and twelve male patients, aged 36.7+/-2.6 years with BMI in males of 30.4+/-1.7 kg/m(2) and in females of 24.4+/-1.2 kg/m(2), were evaluated after 1 and 6 months and 11 patients were further evaluated after 2 years of BC therapy. Plasma prolactin is presented as the mean of four samples taken daily. Serum leptin was determined in the pooled serum from three samples taken at 15-min intervals at 0800 h after an overnight fast. Multivariate linear regression and repeated measures analysis of covariance were used. RESULTS: In males, pretreatment prolactin levels were 71 362+/-29 912 mU/l while leptin levels were 14.9+/-1.8 microg/l. In females, pretreatment prolactin levels were 11 395+/-5839 mU/l and leptin levels were 16.7+/-2.5 microg/l. The sexual dimorphism of serum leptin levels at initial presentation was preserved after adjusting for BMI and prolactin-induced hypogonadism. After 1 month of therapy, prolactin levels significantly decreased (males: 17 618+/-8736 mU/l, females: 3686+/-2231; P<0.05), BMI did not change (males: 30.2+/-1.7 kg/m(2), females: 24.1+/-1.2 kg/m(2); P>0.05), while serum leptin levels decreased (males: 12.5+/-1.5 microg/l, females: 13.6+/-2.1 microg/l; P<0.05). After 6 months of treatment, prolactin further decreased (males: 3456+/-2101 mU/l, females: 677+/-360 mU/l; P<0.05) as did BMI (males: 28.6+/-1.6 kg/m(2), females 23.1+/-1.0 kg/m(2); P<0.05). The difference was more pronounced in male patients. Leptin levels were 12.8+/-2.8 microg/l in males and 12.9+/-1.8 microg/l in females (P<0.05). After 2 years of BC treatment, prolactin levels were near normal (males: 665+/-439 mU/l, females 447+/-130 mU/l; P<0.05) and BMI remained 26.5+/-1.9 kg/m(2) for males and 23.6+/-0.8 kg/m(2) for females (P<0.05). Leptin levels were 9.5+/-2.2 microg/l in males and 18.7+/-3.1 microg/l in females (P<0.05). There was a gradual increase in the gender difference in serum leptin levels over time. Changes in serum leptin levels significantly correlated with changes in BMI (r=0.844, P<0.001) but did not correlate with changes in plasma prolactin levels after 1 month (r=0.166), 6 months (r=0.313) and 2 years (r=0.234, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The long-acting dopamine agonist BC, by increasing dopaminergic tone, may influence body weight and likely body composition by mechanisms in addition to reducing hyperprolactinemia in patients with prolactinomas.
T Skoric, M Korsic, K Zarkovic, V Plavsic, N Besenski, L Breskovac, Z Giljevic and J Paladino
A 41-year-old male presented with progressive visual defects, acromegaly and hyperthyroidism. After clinical evaluation a giant GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed. Administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide at doses of 150 microg s.c. per day inhibited the secretion of both GH and TSH. A three-week treatment with octreotide prior to surgery led to slight visual improvement and CT scan showed some new necrotic areas within the tumor mass. Transcranial surgery was performed. By immunohistochemical analyses of the adenoma tissue GH, prolactin and beta-chorionic gonadotropin were detected; TSH was negative. Electron microscopy revealed an undifferentiated, monomorphous adenoma with morphological features of an acidophil stem cell adenoma such as the presence of misplaced exocytoses, fibrous bodies and mitochondrial gigantism. However, the tumor cells contained small secretory granules (up to 250 nm) accumulated along the cell membrane characteristic of thyrotrope cells. Furthermore, some adenoma cells were fusiform with long cytoplasmic processes resembling thyrotropes. Two months after the operation CT scan revealed a large residual tumor. Serum GH and TSH levels had increased again and the TSH level was even higher than before the treatment. The patient died suddenly, most probably of lethal arrhythmia. Specimens of the adenoma tissue obtained at autopsy confirmed the previous findings with the exception of positive immunostaining for TSH which was found in less than 1% of the adenoma cells. This undifferentiated, monomorphous GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma represents an entity that is unusual both in its ultrastructural features and clinical manifestations suggesting a cytogenesis from an early, undifferentiated stem cell.
I Pentz-Vidovic, T Skoric, G Grubisic, M Korsic, T Ivicevic-Bakulic, N Besenski, J Paladino, V Plavsic and K Zarkovic
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the clinical course in a young female with gonadotroph adenoma causing ovarian stimulation. PATIENT AND METHODS: Our patient was a 23-year-old woman with a history of oligomenorrhea who had previously undergone bilateral ovarian wedge resection owing to the clinical appearance of polycystic ovaries. Two years later, she sought treatment for headache, galactorrhea, history of spotting and lower abdominal distension. FSH, LH, beta-LH, inhibin A and B, estradiol, prolactin (PRL), and beta-chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-CG) were measured, and the responses of FSH, LH and beta-LH to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) were documented. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor tissue was performed after surgery. Five years after the trans-sphenoidal surgery, the patient again became oligomenorrheic. A large recurrent adenoma was diagnosed on CT one year later. Transvaginal ultrasound showed ovaries of normal size with multiple small cystic formations simulating a polycystic pattern, While the patient was awaiting surgery, a pituitary apoplexy occurred. Emergency decompressive surgery was performed and the patient fully recovered. RESULTS: Enlarged ovaries were found on ultrasound examination simulating a hyperstimulation-like pattern. At that time, elevated levels of FSH (13.4IU/l) and marginally elevated levels of beta-LH (1.43ng/ml) were found, whereas the level of LH (0.5IU/l) was subnormal. Plasma estradiol was markedly supranormal (6150pmol/l). Levels of inhibin A and B were elevated (326pg/ml and 588pg/ml respectively). The prolactin level (70ng/ml) was increased, whereas beta-chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-CG) was normal. Significantly increased FSH, LH, and beta-LH responses to TRH stimulation were documented. Pituitary macroadenoma was found on MRI scan and removed by trans-sphenoidal surgery. Immunohistochemical examination showed high positivity for beta-CG and LH, and slight positivity for FSH. Five years after the surgery, estradiol was elevated (1160pmol/l), whereas basal levels of LH (4.65IU/l) and FSH (3.98IU/l) were not suppressed. After the second operation, immunostaining of the adenoma tissue confirmed the previous findings. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of gonadotrophins in our case did not prove to be a method for identifying a large recurrent gonadotroph pituitary adenoma. The sonographic ovarian imaging varied from a polycystic- to an ovarian hyperstimulation-like pattern during the evolution of the tumour.