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T Di Matola, F D'Ascoli, C Luongo, M Bifulco, G Rossi, G Fenzi, and M Vitale

OBJECTIVE: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, induces apoptosis in the thyroid cell line TAD-2 and in proliferating normal human thyroid cells in culture, through a p53-independent mechanism involving caspase-3-like proteases. The combination of lovastatin with other anti-neoplastic drugs potentiates chemotherapy of tumors. This drug has been suggested for the chemotherapy of tumors and is potentially useful in the treatment of thyroid proliferative diseases. Based on this premise, we analyzed in more detail the role of some molecular effectors and the role of the caspase family proteases in the lovastatin-induced apoptotic pathway in TAD-2 cells. METHODS: TAD-2 cells were treated with lovastatin to induce apoptosis, and expression of p53, Bc1-2, Bcl-XL and Bax was analyzed by Western blot. Caspase activation was evaluated by the assay of enzymatic activity with chromogenic peptides and Western blot. Nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions were prepared by differential centrifugation and the presence of cytochrome c and lamin B was evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS: p53, Bc1-2, Bcl-XL and Bax protein expression were unchanged during apoptosis. Cytochrome c was released from mitochondria into the cytosol, a pivotal event in the activation of caspase-3. Caspase-3 and -6 but not caspase-2 were activated, and proteolysis of PARP and lamin B, a caspase-6 substrate located in the inner nuclear membrane, was demonstrated by Western blot. The nuclear localization of lamin B was also inhibited by lovastatin. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that, in TAD-2 thyroid cells, lovastatin induces lamin B proteolysis and inhibits its nuclear localization and induces cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol.

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Daniele Santi, Elisa Giannetta, Andrea M Isidori, Cristiana Vitale, Antonio Aversa, and Manuela Simoni

Objective

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, reducing nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, and increasing production of pro-inflammatory factors, leading to an increased risk of long-term cardiovascular disease. As the effects of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) on endothelial function have not been systematically investigated, we conducted a meta-analysis of available randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Design

A thorough search of the literature was carried out. Relevant studies were considered according to RCT study design, enrollment of men with type 2 DM, chronic administration of PDE5i, and evaluation of endothelial function through both hemodynamic and endothelial inflammation-related parameters.

Results

Fifteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria but only six RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed for 476 diabetic men, 239 randomized to Sildenafil, and 237 to placebo respectively. Four RCTs evaluated flow-mediated dilation (FMD), demonstrating a weighted mean increase of 2.19% (95% CI 0.48 to 3.90). This result showed a high heterogeneity (I 2: 98%). Thus, a further sub-group meta-analysis was performed and this analysis confirmed a significant, Sildenafil-related FMD improvement. Sildenafil improved endothelin 1 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein by ∼−0.94 pg/ml and −0.36 mg/l, respectively, not reaching statistical significance (P=0.69 and P=0.22 respectively). Finally, Sildenafil administration significantly reduced serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL6, −0.82 pg/ml; 95% CI −1.58 to −0.07).

Conclusion

This meta-analysis suggests a beneficial effect of chronic PDE5i administration on endothelial function. Chronic Sildenafil administration seems to improve hemodynamic (FMD) and serum pro-inflammatory makers (IL6) in diabetic men. Larger studies are needed to confirm the effects of chronic PDE5i on endothelial function.

Free access

Massimo Scacchi, Massimiliano Andrioli, Chiara Carzaniga, Giovanni Vitale, Mirella Moro, Luca Poggi, Francesca Pecori Giraldi, Letizia M Fatti, and Francesco Cavagnini

Objective

Ultrasound-elastography (US-E) appears to be a helpful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. In acromegaly, the prevalence of thyroid cancer is still debated. The aims of this study were to evaluate thyroid nodules in acromegaly and to establish the accuracy of US-E in providing information on their nature, using cytological analysis as a reference.

Subjects and methods

US-E was applied to 90 nodules detected in 25 acromegalic patients and to 94 nodules found in 31 non-acromegalic goitrous subjects. The lesions were classified according to the elasticity scores (ES) as soft (ES 1–2) or hard (ES 3–4). Fine needle aspiration cytology could be performed in 60.8% of hard nodules in acromegalics and in 86.7% of hard nodules in controls.

Results

The prevalence of hard nodules was significantly higher in the whole group of acromegalic patients than in controls (56.8 vs 16.0%, P<0.0001). The prevalence of hard nodules in patients with active acromegaly (68.9%) was greater, though not to a statistically significant extent, than that observed in cured (44.4%) and controlled (52.5%) patients. Cytology revealed malignancy or suspect malignancy in four of the nodules of non-acromegalic subjects and in none of the nodules of acromegalic patients.

Conclusions

This study has demonstrated a high prevalence of stiff thyroid nodules in acromegaly, greater than that found in non-acromegalic goitrous subjects. In acromegalics, hard nodules appeared not to be malignant on cytopathological examination and are probably of fibrous nature. Thus, US-E appears to be of limited value for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in acromegaly.

Free access

F Bogazzi, L Bartalena, S Brogioni, A Burelli, F Raggi, F Ultimieri, C Cosci, M Vitale, G Fenzi, and E Martino

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of amiodarone and its active metabolite, desethylamiodarone (DEA) on thyroid hormone action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The reporter construct ME-TRE-TK-CAT or TSHbeta-TRE-TK-CAT, containing the nucleotide sequence of the thyroid hormone response element (TRE) of either malic enzyme (ME) or TSHbeta genes, thymidine kinase (TK) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) was transiently transfected with RSV-TRbeta into NIH3T3 cells. Gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed using labelled synthetic oligonucleotides containing the ME-TRE and in vitro translated thyroid hormone receptor (TR)beta. RESULTS: Addition of 1 micromol/l T4 or T3 to the culture medium increased the basal level of ME-TRE-TK-CAT by 4.5- and 12.5-fold respectively. Amiodarone or DEA (1 micromol/l) increased CAT activity by 1.4- and 3.4-fold respectively. Combination of DEA with T4 or T3 increased CAT activity by 9.4- and 18.9-fold respectively. These data suggested that DEA, but not amiodarone, had a synergistic effect with thyroid hormone on ME-TRE, rather than the postulated inhibitory action; we supposed that this was due to overexpression of the transfected TR into the cells. When the amount of RSV-TRbeta was reduced until it was present in a limited amount, allowing competition between thyroid hormone and the drug, addition of 1 micromol/l DEA decreased the T3-dependent expression of the reporter gene by 50%. The inhibitory effect of DEA was partially due to a reduced binding of TR to ME-TRE, as assessed by EMSA. DEA activated the TR-dependent down-regulation by the negative TSH-TRE, although at low level (35% of the down-regulation produced by T3), whereas amiodarone was ineffective. Addition of 1 micromol/l DEA to T3-containing medium reduced the T3-TR-mediated down-regulation of TSH-TRE to 55%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that DEA, but not amiodarone, exerts a direct, although weak, effect on genes that are regulated by thyroid hormone. High concentrations of DEA antagonize the action of T3 at the molecular level, interacting with TR and reducing its binding to TREs. This effect may contribute to the hypothyroid-like effect observed in peripheral tissues of patients receiving amiodarone treatment.