OBJECTIVE: The recently isolated endogenous GH secretagogue, named ghrelin, is a gastric peptide of 28 amino acids with an n-octanoylation in the serine 3 that confers the biological activity to this factor. Ghrelin has been shown to directly stimulate GH release in vivo and in vitro and to be involved in the regulation of gastric acid secretion and motility. In the present work we have studied gender and gonadal dependency of ghrelin mRNA expression in rat stomach. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed ghrelin mRNA expression in rat stomach by Northern blot analysis. We also examined the effect of gonadal steroid deprivation on ghrelin mRNA expression. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained showed clearly that ghrelin gastric mRNA expression increased with age in young rats (up to 90 days old) but exhibited no significant sex difference at each age tested. Ghrelin mRNA levels were lowest at postnatal day 9, reaching a stable level of expression at day 40 in both female and male rats, although the increase in female rats appears much more gradual than that in males. Moreover, neither ovariectomy nor orchidectomy significantly modified ghrelin mRNA gastric levels in adult rats. In conclusion, these data indicate that ghrelin mRNA expression is associated with age and that a progressive increase is present from the perinatal period up to a stable level after puberty. Gonadal hormones did not alter ghrelin mRNA levels. Taken together, these data showed that ghrelin mRNA levels in young rats are age but not gender dependent, and are not influenced by gonadal steroids.
O Gualillo, JE Caminos, M Kojima, K Kangawa, E Arvat, E Ghigo, FF Casanueva, and C Dieguez
N Oda, A Nakai, R Hayashi, N Hayakawa, M Hamada, K Kojima, M Tsuzuki, T Matui, M Ino, M Hirano, K Iwase, M Itoh, and A Nagasaka
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) as a marker of hypercalcemia in leukemic patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured the serum levels of PTHrP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and calcium in three patients with hypercalcemia due to leukemia. RESULTS: Serum levels of PTHrP, LDH and calcium were elevated at admission in all patients, and these levels were reduced to within the normal range after chemotherapy. However, normalization of serum PTHrP concentration occurred more rapidly than normalization of serum LDH levels after chemotherapy. The increase in serum PTHrP concentration accompanied leukemic cell proliferation and preceded the increases in serum LDH and calcium. Serum LDH concentration increased, but serum PTHrP concentration did not after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that serum PTHrP may be a more useful marker than serum LDH or calcium in assessing the status of leukemic patients with hypercalcemia.
R Peino, R Baldelli, J Rodriguez-Garcia, S Rodriguez-Segade, M Kojima, K Kangawa, E Arvat, E Ghigo, C Dieguez, and FF Casanueva
Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH) releaser acylated peptide that has recently been purified from stomach, and which potently binds to the GH secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin releases GH in vitro and in vivo in animal models, however its actions, potency and specificity in humans are unknown. In the present study, 12 healthy subjects were studied: 6 underwent four tests with ghrelin administered i.v. at the dose of 0 (placebo), 0.25, 0.5 and 1 microg/kg which corresponds to 0, 18, 37 and 75 microg total dose. A further 6 volunteers underwent two tests on different days with ghrelin at the dose of 3.3 or 6.6 microg/kg which corresponds to 250 microg and 500 microg total dose. Ghrelin-mediated GH secretion showed a dose-response curve, in which 1 microg/kg was the minimally effective dose in some individuals, but not as a group. On the contrary, the total doses of 250 microg and 500 microg elicited a powerful GH secretion, with a mean peak of 69.8+/-9.2 microg/l and 90.9+/-16.9 microg/l respectively, and areas under the curve of 4435+/-608 and 6125+/-1008 microg/l per 120 min respectively. All of them statistically significant vs placebo and vs the 1 microg/kg dose. Ghrelin administration also elicited a relevant dose-response mediated prolactin secretion suggesting no specificity of its actions. No relevant side effects were observed with ghrelin apart from a hyperhydrosis episode in two individuals tested with the higher ghrelin doses. In conclusion, ghrelin is a potent releaser of GH in normal individuals, with a dose-response pattern of operation. No saturating dose was observed.