OBJECTIVE: Recently, osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF) has been shown to inhibit osteoclast differentiation. On the other hand, we have reported that parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulated osteoclast formation, presumably through a PTH-responsive cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway, in mouse bone cells. DESIGN AND METHODS: The present study was performed to examine how OPG/OCIF expression is regulated by PTH and to further investigate the possible involvement of OPG/OCIF in the stimulation of osteoclast formation by PTH in mouse bone cells. OPG/OCIF mRNA expression was analyzed by Northern hybridization after 24h treatments of mouse whole bone cells and mouse stromal cell line, ST2 cells with PTH or various second messenger analogs. RESULTS: Human (h) PTH(1-34) (10(-10) and 10(-8)mol/l) but not 10(-8)mol/l hPTH(3-34) down-regulated OPG/OCIF mRNA expression in mouse bone cells. Dibutyryl cAMP, but not phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, or A23187, a calcium ionophore, down-regulated it. The same was also observed in ST2 cells, suggesting that stromal cells are responsible for the inhibitory effect of PTH and cAMP analogs on OPG/OCIF mRNA expression in mouse bone cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that PTH down-regulates OPG/OCIF mRNA expression through the PKA pathway in stromal cells, which would result in the stimulation of osteoclast formation.
M Kanzawa, T Sugimoto, M Kanatani and K Chihara
M Kanatani, T Sugimoto, H Kaji, K Ikeda and K Chihara
BACKGROUND: Although there have been some case reports suggesting that bone in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) might respond to parathyroid hormone (PTH), no information is available as to whether serum PTH concentration is related to bone metabolic markers or to bone mineral density (BMD) in PHP. OBJECTIVE: To address these relationships, by comparing intact serum PTH, bone metabolic markers and BMD in patients with PHP with those in patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) and postoperative hypoparathyroidism (OHP). METHODS: Intact serum PTH, bone metabolic markers (osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline) and BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or single-photon absorptiometry were measured in patients with PHP Ia (n=2) and PHP Ib (n=8). The results were compared with those in patients with IHP (n=5) and OHP (n=14). RESULTS: All bone metabolic markers measured were present in significantly greater amounts in patients with PHP Ib than in those with IHP+OHP. The Z score (standard deviation of average BMD at each age) of the BMD of femoral neck was significantly lower in patients with PHP Ib than in those with IHP+OHP. The Z scores of BMD of lumbar spine and radius were also lower in patients with PHP Ib than in those with IHP+OHP, but the difference was not significant. Moreover, the intact serum PTH concentrations were significantly and positively related to bone metabolic marker levels in all patients, and the intact serum PTH concentrations were significantly and negatively related to BMD of lumbar spine in PHP patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PTH stimulates bone turnover in PHP Ib patients, resulting in a relatively lower BMD in PHP Ib patients than in IHP+OHP patients. The present study indicates that bones of most cases of PHP could respond to PTH.