Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author: M Droste x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

I Schreiber, M Buchfelder, M Droste, K Forssmann, K Mann, B Saller and C J Strasburger

Objective: The GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant is a highly effective new treatment option in acromegaly. The German Pegvisomant Observational Study (GPOS) was started to monitor long-term safety and efficacy of pegvisomant as prescribed in clinical practice.

Design: GPOS is an observational, multi-center, surveillance study, which comprises non-interventional data collection.

Methods: Of the 229 patients included in the study, 90.4% had previous pituitary surgery, 43.2% were treated by radiation therapy, and 94.3% had previous medical therapy for acromegaly that had been discontinued mainly due to persistent IGF-I elevation or side effects. The intention-to-treat population included 177 patients with at least one post-baseline efficacy measurement.

Results: IGF-I levels decreased from 1.75±0.91-fold the upper limit of normal at baseline to 1.05± 0.62 at the 6-month visit, 0.96±0.60 at the 12-month visit, and to 0.89±0.41-fold after 24 months (P<0.0001). Mean duration of pegvisomant therapy was 51.8±35.8 weeks (median=51.9 weeks). IGF-I was normalized in 64.4% at 6 months with a median dose of 15.0 mg/day, in 70.9% at 12 months, and in 76.3% at 24 months. Fasting glucose levels improved from 114.4±45.9 to 101.5± 42.8 mg/dl after 6 months (P<0.01) and to 100.6±33.2 mg/ml after 12 months (P<0.01). General physical condition measured by specific signs and symptoms score improved significantly. Adverse events occurring in >1% were injection site reactions in 7.4%, elevated liver enzymes (>3 times of normal) in 5.2% (3.1% spontaneously normalized during continued treatment), reported increase of pituitary tumor volume in 5.2% (which was verified in 3.1%), and headache in 1.7%.

Conclusions: Pegvisomant is generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to that reported in clinical trials and can effectively reduce IGF-I in patients with acromegaly refractory to conventional therapy.

Free access

H Biering, B Saller, J Bauditz, M Pirlich, B Rudolph, A Johne, M Buchfelder, K Mann, M Droste, I Schreiber, H Lochs and C J Strasburger

Objective: The new GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the most effective medical therapy to normalize IGF-I levels in patients with acromegaly. Based on currently available data pegvisomant is well tolerated; however, treatment-induced elevation of transaminases has been reported and led to the necessity for drug discontinuation in some patients in the pivotal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the prevalence of elevated transaminases and to describe in detail the findings in a single case who required drug discontinuation because of elevation of transaminases which emerged during treatment and who underwent liver biopsy.

Design and methods: Retrospective safety analyses were carried out on 142 patients with acromegaly receiving pegvisomant treatment in Germany between March 2003 and the end of 2004. Of these patients, 123 were documented in a post-marketing surveillance study, one case of elevated transaminases was reported spontaneously and the other patients were treated in a clinical study.

Results: Mean treatment duration with pegvisomant in the ongoing observational study at the end of 2004 was 28.3 ± 19.9 (S.D.) weeks. Twelve out of the 142 patients had elevated transaminases above three times the upper limit of normal, likely caused by biliary obstruction in five of the patients. All patients but one affected by elevated transaminases had been previously treated with somatostatin analogues. In six out of 142 (4%) of patients, pegvisomant was permanently withdrawn because of elevated transaminases. The same number of patients showed a transient increase of transaminases with either spontaneous remission without dose modification (n = 4) or no re-increase of transaminases after temporary discontinuation and re-exposure (n = 2). The liver biopsy of one patient who was permanently withdrawn showed a chronic mild hepatitis with a mixed portal inflammation including eosinophilic granulocytes.

Conclusions: Liver function tests should be regularly followed on pegvisomant treatment. Biliary complications, which may arise from restitution of normal gall bladder motility after cessation of somatostatin analogue treatment, need to be differentiated from pegvisomant-induced abnormalities. The histological pattern of the liver biopsy performed in one of the patients showed a mild chronic active hepatitis. The lack of dose dependency and rather low frequency of elevated transaminases in those cases where a biliary disorder was excluded render this reaction an idiosyncratic drug toxicity.

Free access

M Buchfelder, D Weigel, M Droste, K Mann, B Saller, K Brübach, G K Stalla, M Bidlingmaier, C J Strasburger and on behalf of the investigators of the German Pegvisomant Observational Study

In treatment-resistant patients with acromegaly, pharmacotherapy with pegvisomant (Somavert) is a highly effective option. However, safety concerns have been raised related to a potential increase in tumor size during long-term pegvisomant treatment. Therefore, neuroradiological monitoring of tumor extension and volume was performed in the German Pegvisomant Observational Study, which covers 87% of patients treated with pegvisomant in Germany. As of 15 July 2007, a total of 307 patients (156 males and 151 females) had been included in the study and were on pegvisomant therapy for an average of 86.7 weeks. Median and mean doses of pegvisomant were 15 and 16.6 mg/day respectively. Out of these 307 patients, 18 were reported to have tumor-size increases as adverse events. From these 18 patients, all available serial magnetic resonance images were collected. Identical or similar sequences were chosen and the region of interest was magnified and compared across time after the best possible fit had been achieved by size and gray-scale correction. All available images were carefully re-evaluated according to this method. In 10 out of the 18 patients, there was no evidence of tumor-size increase, when the pre-treatment scans were compared with the most recent follow-up investigations. In two out of the remaining eight patients, there was a rebound effect observed after withdrawal of somatostatin analog treatment, but no further progression. In another three out of the eight patients, tumor-size increase had already been documented before pegvisomant treatment was commenced, during preceding somatostatin analog treatment and continued therapy. In the last three patients, tumor progression after the start of pegvisomant treatment was confirmed. All three patients had undergone pituitary surgery as primary treatment, but had not been pre-treated with radiotherapy. In all three cases, the tumor increase was not considered clinically significant and the investigators decided to continue pegvisomant treatment. In conclusion, in this large group of pegvisomant-treated patients, tumor progression was rare. It was reported in between 2 and 3% of patients treated, and did not exceed the expected rate in patients with acromegaly not treated with pegvisomant. In over one-half of patients, reports of tumor increase could not be confirmed by re-evaluation. This was mostly due to non-identical gantry projections. Misjudgements mainly occurred when only images from two individual investigations, rather than the entire series of scans, were compared. Thus, we recommend a careful serial evaluation of all available images to avoid misinterpretations and erroneous alerts. As from this presently largest database of acromegalic patients treated with pegvisomant, tumor-growth rate appears not to be different from patients on other treatment modalities. Although these data are reassuring with regard to the concern of somatotroph adenoma growth under peripheral GH receptor blockade, further study is required.

Free access

M Buchfelder, S Schlaffer, M Droste, K Mann, B Saller, K Brübach, G K Stalla, C J Strasburger and on behalf of the investigators of the German Pegvisomant Observational Study

Pivotal studies have demonstrated that pharmacotherapy with pegvisomant (Somavert) is a highly effective treatment for acromegaly. Since clinical experience with the drug was very limited, the Pegvisomant Observational Study was launched in Germany immediately with the drug becoming commercially available to patients early in 2004. Its purpose was to record safety and efficacy data on as many patients as possible.

As of 12th August 2008 a total of 371 patients (185 males, 186 females) had been included in the study. They were on pegvisomant therapy for an average of 118 weeks. Median and mean doses of pegvisomant were 15 and 16.4 mg/day respectively. Treatment efficacy was monitored by IGF1 levels and the patients symptoms were evaluated by completion of a questionnaire (patient-assessed acromegaly symptom questionnaire). Safety data included liver function tests, fasting glucose, HbA1c measurements, and tumor size monitoring by repeated magnetic resonance imaging.

Normalization of IGF1 ranged from 55.7% of the 273 patients assessed after 6 months to 71.3% of 202 patients assessed after 24 months of treatment. It was 70.7% after 36 months (133 patients), 64.8% at 48 months (71 patients), and 58.4% after 60 months (24 patients). In 39 patients (10.9%) treatment was discontinued due to serious adverse events or adverse events with 25 (6.7%) of these patients having a potential causal relationship with the pegvisomant treatment. Liver function tests became abnormal in 20 patients and another three patients were recorded to have hepatobiliary disorders. Tumor size increase was reported in 20 patients, but only confirmed in nine patients by careful revision of all available images. Local injection site reactions were observed in 12 patients.

In conclusion, in this large group of pegvisomant-treated patients, long-term data for up to 5 years of treatment are now available. In 71.3% of patients with previously not sufficiently treatable acromegaly, IGF1 levels were normalized by pegvisomant therapy. Elevated transaminases usually normalized after discontinuation but in half of the affected patients also despite continuation of treatment without dose alteration. Tumor progression was a rare event. It did not exceed the expected rate in patients with acromegaly not treated with pegvisomant. As from this presently largest database of acromegalic patients treated with pegvisomant, long-term results are encouraging. The German data are now merged into the global ACROSTUDY and will constitute a major portion of the international ACROSTUDY project as a continuing global web-based observational study.

Free access

Elena Valassi, Holger Franz, Thierry Brue, Richard A Feelders, Romana Netea-Maier, Stylianos Tsagarakis, Susan M Webb, Maria Yaneva, Martin Reincke, Michael Droste, Irina Komerdus, Dominique Maiter, Darko Kastelan, Philippe Chanson, Marija Pfeifer, Christian J Strasburger, Miklós Tóth, Olivier Chabre, Antoine Tabarin, Michal Krsek, Carmen Fajardo, Marek Bolanowski, Alicia Santos, John A H Wass, Peter J Trainer and for the ERCUSYN Study Group

Objective

To evaluate which tests are performed to diagnose hypercortisolism in patients included in the European Registry on Cushing’s syndrome (ERCUSYN), and to examine if their use differs from the current guidelines.

Patients and methods

We analyzed data on the diagnostic tests performed in 1341 patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) who have been entered into the ERCUSYN database between January 1, 2000 and January 31, 2016 from 57 centers in 26 European countries. Sixty-seven percent had pituitary-dependent CS (PIT-CS), 24% had adrenal-dependent CS (ADR-CS), 6% had CS from an ectopic source (ECT-CS) and 3% were classified as having CS from other causes (OTH-CS).

Results

Of the first-line tests, urinary free cortisol (UFC) test was performed in 78% of patients, overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in 60% and late-night salivary cortisol (LSaC) in 25%. Use of LSaC increased in the last five years as compared with previous years (P < 0.01). Use of HDDST was slightly more frequent in the last 5 years as compared with previous years (P < 0.05). Of the additional tests, late-night serum cortisol (LSeC) was measured in 62% and 48-h 2 mg/day low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) in 33% of cases. ACTH was performed in 78% of patients. LSeC and overnight 1 mg DST supported the diagnosis of both PIT-CS and ADR-CS more frequently than UFC (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Use of diagnostic tests for CS varies across Europe and partly differs from the currently available guidelines. It would seem pertinent that a European consensus be established to determine the best diagnostic approach to CS, taking into account specific inter-country differences with regard to the availability of diagnostic tools.

Free access

Elena Valassi, Holger Franz, Thierry Brue, Richard A Feelders, Romana Netea-Maier, Stylianos Tsagarakis, Susan M Webb, Maria Yaneva, Martin Reincke, Michael Droste, Irina Komerdus, Dominique Maiter, Darko Kastelan, Philippe Chanson, Marija Pfeifer, Christian J Strasburger, Miklós Tóth, Olivier Chabre, Michal Krsek, Carmen Fajardo, Marek Bolanowski, Alicia Santos, Peter J Trainer, John A H Wass, Antoine Tabarin and for the ERCUSYN Study Group

Background

Surgery is the definitive treatment of Cushing’s syndrome (CS) but medications may also be used as a first-line therapy. Whether preoperative medical treatment (PMT) affects postoperative outcome remains controversial.

Objective

(1) Evaluate how frequently PMT is given to CS patients across Europe; (2) examine differences in preoperative characteristics of patients who receive PMT and those who undergo primary surgery and (3) determine if PMT influences postoperative outcome in pituitary-dependent CS (PIT-CS).

Patients and methods

1143 CS patients entered into the ERCUSYN database from 57 centers in 26 countries. Sixty-nine percent had PIT-CS, 25% adrenal-dependent CS (ADR-CS), 5% CS from an ectopic source (ECT-CS) and 1% were classified as having CS from other causes (OTH-CS).

Results

Twenty per cent of patients took PMT. ECT-CS and PIT-CS were more likely to receive PMT compared to ADR-CS (P < 0.001). Most commonly used drugs were ketoconazole (62%), metyrapone (16%) and a combination of both (12%). Median (interquartile range) duration of PMT was 109 (98) days. PIT-CS patients treated with PMT had more severe clinical features at diagnosis and poorer quality of life compared to those undergoing primary surgery (SX) (P < 0.05). Within 7 days of surgery, PIT-CS patients treated with PMT were more likely to have normal cortisol (P < 0.01) and a lower remission rate (P < 0.01). Within 6 months of surgery, no differences in morbidity or remission rates were observed between SX and PMT groups.

Conclusions

PMT may confound the interpretation of immediate postoperative outcome. Follow-up is recommended to definitely evaluate surgical results.

Restricted access

Elena Valassi, Antoine Tabarin, Thierry Brue, Richard A Feelders, Martin Reincke, Romana Netea-Maier, Miklós Tóth, Sabina Zacharieva, Susan M Webb, Stylianos Tsagarakis, Philippe Chanson, Marija Pfeiffer, Michael Droste, Irina Komerdus, Darko Kastelan, Dominique Maiter, Olivier Chabre, Holger Franz, Alicia Santos, Christian J Strasburger, Peter J Trainer, John Newell-Price, Oskar Ragnarsson and the ERCUSYN Study Group

Objective

Patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality.

Methods

In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2–5.5) years.

Results

Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment.

Conclusion

Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful clinical vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.