Cushing's syndrome (CS) patients have increased mortality primarily due to cardiovascular events induced by glucocorticoid (GC) excess-related severe metabolic changes. Glucose metabolism abnormalities are common in CS due to increased gluconeogenesis, disruption of insulin signalling with reduced glucose uptake and disposal of glucose and altered insulin secretion, consequent to the combination of GCs effects on liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas. Dyslipidaemia is a frequent feature in CS as a result of GC-induced increased lipolysis, lipid mobilisation, liponeogenesis and adipogenesis. Protein metabolism is severely affected by GC excess via complex direct and indirect stimulation of protein breakdown and inhibition of protein synthesis, which can lead to muscle loss. CS patients show changes in body composition, with fat redistribution resulting in accumulation of central adipose tissue. Metabolic changes, altered adipokine release, GC-induced heart and vasculature abnormalities, hypertension and atherosclerosis contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In paediatric CS patients, the interplay between GC and the GH/IGF1 axis affects growth and body composition, while in adults it further contributes to the metabolic derangement. GC excess has a myriad of deleterious effects and here we attempt to summarise the metabolic comorbidities related to CS and their management in the perspective of reducing the cardiovascular risk and mortality overall.
Francesco Ferraù and Márta Korbonits
Helen Butler and Márta Korbonits
The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a significant player in the control of energy balance and metabolism, through its direct central and peripheral effects, as well as via its interaction with other appetite-regulating pathways. There is mounting evidence that the endocannabinoid system is overactive in obesity and were it possible to safely dampen-down the elevated endocannabinoid tone, lipid and carbohydrate profiles could be improved and weight loss induced. The series of randomised clinical trials showed reproducible beneficial effects on weight, HbA1c and lipid parameters, in addition to other cardiovascular risk factors. However, to date, clinical developments have been halted because of psychiatric side effects. Although recent evidence has highlighted the importance of an appetite-independent, peripheral mode of action, it is still unclear whether selectively blocking the peripheral system could potentially solve the problem of the central side effects, which thus far has led to the demise of the cannabinoid antagonists as useful pharmaceuticals. In this concise review, we summarise the data on the metabolic effects of the cannabinoid pathway and its antagonists.
Márta Korbonits, David Blaine, Marinos Elia and Jeremy Powell-Tuck
Objective: The discovery of leptin, a hormone primarily involved in adaptation to fasting, led to an increased interest in appetite regulation and appetite-modulating hormones. Here, we present unique data from a case of extreme starvation and refeeding, showing changes in plasma concentrations of appetite-modulating and metabolic hormones as well as biochemical changes, and draw attention to the dangers of the refeeding syndrome.
Patients and methods: We studied the refeeding period of a 44-day voluntary fast uncomplicated by underlying disease. Biochemical and hormonal variables were compared with 16 matched subjects such that the BMI range of the controls covered the entire spectrum for the index subject’s recovering BMI.
Results: Lack of calorie intake with free access to water resulted in 25% loss of body weight. Haemoconcentration was observed and feeding was started with a low sodium, hypocaloric liquid formulation. During early refeeding, marked hypophosphataemia, haemodilution and slight oedema developed. Vitamins B1, B12 and B6 were depleted while serum free fatty acids, ketone bodies and zinc levels were abnormally high; abnormal liver function developed over the first week. The hormonal profile showed low IGF-I and insulin levels, and elevated IGF-binding protein-1 concentrations. Appetite-regulating hormones were either very low (leptin and ghrelin) or showed no marked difference from the control group (peptide YY, agouti-related peptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin). Appetite was low at the beginning of refeeding and a transient increase in orexin and resistin was observed coincidently with an increase in subjective hunger.
Conclusions: Our study illustrates the potential dangers of refeeding and provides a comprehensive insight into the endocrinology of prolonged fasting and the refeeding process.
Chris J Gardner, Anders F Mattsson, Christina Daousi, Márta Korbonits, Maria Koltowska-Haggstrom and Daniel J Cuthbertson
Prevalence of GH deficiency (GHD) caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly variable. Short-term studies show improvement in quality of life (QoL) during GH replacement (GHR), but long-term data are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of post-traumatic hypopituitarism and the QoL effects of long-term GHR.
Pfizer International Metabolic Database patients with GHD caused by TBI and by non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) were compared regarding: clinical characteristics at baseline and 1-year of GHR, and QoL response up to 8-years of GHR (QoL-AGHDA total scores and dimensions) in relationship with country-specific norms.
TBI patients compared with NFPA patients were younger, diagnosed with GHD 2.4 years later after primary disease onset (P<0.0001), had a higher incidence of isolated GHD, higher GH peak, a more favourable metabolic profile and worse QoL, were shorter by 0.9 cm (1.8 cm when corrected for age and gender; P=0.004) and received higher GH dose (mean difference: 0.04 mg/day P=0.006). In TBI patients, 1-year improvement in QoL was greater than in NFPA (change in QoL-AGHDA score 5.0 vs 3.5, respectively, P=0.04) and was sustained over 8 years. In TBI patients, socialisation normalised after 1 year of GHR, self-confidence and tenseness after 6 years and no normalisation of tiredness and memory was observed.
Compared with NFPA, TBI patients presented biochemically with less severe hypopituitarism and worse QoL scores. GHR achieved clinically relevant, long-term benefit in QoL.
Veronica Preda, Márta Korbonits, Simon Cudlip, Niki Karavitaki and Ashley B Grossman
To study the prevalence of germline mutations of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in a large cohort of patients seen in the Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM), UK, with apparently sporadic pituitary adenomas, who were either diagnosed or had relevant clinical manifestations by the age of 40 years.
We prospectively investigated all patients who were seen at Oxford University Hospital, OCDEM, and a tertiary referral centre, between 2012 and 2013, and presented with pituitary tumours under the age of 40 years and with no family history: a total of 127 patients were enrolled in the study.
Leukocyte-origin genomic DNA underwent sequence analysis of exons 1–6 and the flanking intronic regions of the AIP gene (NM_003977.2), with dosage analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
AIP variants were detected in 3% of the 127 patients, comprising four of 48 patients with acromegaly (8%), 0 of 43 with prolactinomas, 0 of the 20 patients with non-functioning adenomas, 0 of 15 with corticotroph adenomas and 0 of one with a thyrotroph adenomas. Definite pathogenetic mutations were seen in 2/4 variants, comprising 4.2% of patients with acromegaly.
This prospective cohort study suggests a relatively low prevalence of AIP gene mutations in young patients with apparently sporadic pituitary adenomas presenting to a tertiary pituitary UK centre. Those with somatotroph macroadenomas have a higher rate of AIP mutation. These findings should inform discussion of genetic testing guidelines.
Lip Min Soh, Maralyn Druce, Ashley B Grossman, Ann-Marie Differ, Liala Rajput, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz and Márta Korbonits
Patients with Pendred syndrome have genotypic and phenotypic variability, leading to challenges in definitive diagnosis. Deaf children with enlarged vestibular aqueducts are often subjected to repeated investigations when tests for mutations in SLC26A4 are abnormal. This study provides genotype and phenotype information from patients with suspected Pendred syndrome referred to a single clinical endocrinology unit.
A retrospective analysis of 50 patients with suspected Pendred syndrome to investigate the correlation between genetic, perchlorate discharge test (PDT) and endocrine status.
Eight patients with monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations had normal PDT. Of the 33 patients with biallelic mutations, ten of 12 patients with >30% discharge developed hypothyroidism. In our cohort, c.626G>T and c.3-2A>G result in milder clinical presentations with lower median perchlorate discharge of 9.3% (interquartile range 4–15%) compared with 40% (interquartile range 21–60%) for the remaining mutations. Eight novel mutations were detected. All patients with PDT <30% remained euthyroid to date, although the majority are still under the age of 30. There was a significant correlation between PDT and goitre size (R=0.61, P=0.0009) and the age of onset of hypothyroidism (R=−0.62, P=0.0297). In our population, the hazard of becoming hypothyroid increased by 7% per percentage point increase in PDT (P<0.001).
There is a correlation between SLC26A4 genotype and thyroid phenotype. If results hold true for larger patient numbers and longer follow-up, then for patients with monoallelic mutations, PDT could be unnecessary. Patients with biallelic mutations and PDT discharge >30% have a high risk of developing goitre and hypothyroidism, and should have lifelong monitoring.
Damian G Morris, Mädälina Muşat, Sándor Czirják, Zoltán Hanzély, Debra M Lillington, Márta Korbonits and Ashley B Grossman
Objectives: Microarray technology allows for the expression profile of many thousands of genes to be quantified at the same time, and has resulted in novel discoveries about the tumour biology of a number of cancers. We sought to do this in pituitary adenomas, the most common intracranial neoplasm.
Methods: Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133A oligonucleotide arrays covering 14 500 well-characterised genes from the human genome were used to study pooled RNA for each of the four major pituitary adenoma subtypes. Individual gene-expression levels in the tumours were compared relative to the expression profile in normal pooled pituitary RNA. Three differentially expressed genes with potential importance in tumourigenesis were chosen for validation by real-time quantitative PCR on the original tumours and on an additional 26 adenomas.
Results: Bioinformatic analysis showed that 3906 genes and 351 expressed sequence tags were differentially expressed among all pituitary tumour subtypes. Lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane- 4-β (LAPTM4B), a novel gene upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma, was significantly over-expressed in adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-secreting adenomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG1), an anti-apoptotic protein found at high levels in a number of human cancers, was significantly over-expressed in growth hormone-secreting and prolactin-secreting adenomas and NFPAs. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, in which murine gene deletion has been shown to produce pituitary ACTH cell hyperplasia and adenomas, was significantly under-expressed in ACTH-secreting adenomas.
Conclusions: Expression array analysis of pituitary adenomas using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133A arrays appears to be a valid method of identifying genes that may be important in tumour pathogenesis.
Sarah J Larkin, Francesco Ferraù, Niki Karavitaki, Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Olaf Ansorge, Ashley B Grossman and Márta Korbonits
The pathogenetic mechanisms of sporadic somatotroph adenomas are not well understood, but derangements of the cAMP pathway have been implicated. Recent studies have identified L206R mutations in the alpha catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PRKACA) in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas and amplification of the beta catalytic subunit of protein kinase A PRKACB in acromegaly associated with Carney complex. Given that both adrenocortical adenomas and somatotroph adenomas are known to be reliant on the cAMP signalling pathway, we sought to determine the relevance of the L206R mutation in both PRKACA and PRKACB for the pathogenesis of sporadic somatotroph adenomas.
Somatotroph adenoma specimens, both frozen and formalin-fixed, from patients who underwent surgery for their acromegaly between 1995 and 2012, were used in the study.
The DNA sequence at codon 206 of PRKACA and PRKACB was determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. The results were compared with patient characteristics, the mutational status of the GNAS complex locus and the tumour granulation pattern.
No mutations at codon 206 of PRKACA or PRKACB were found in a total of 92 specimens, comprising both WT and mutant GNAS cases, and densely, sparsely and mixed granulation patterns.
It is unlikely that mutation at this locus is involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic somatotroph adenoma; however, gene amplification or mutations at other loci or in other components of the cAMP signalling pathway, while unlikely, cannot be ruled out.
Márta Korbonits, Peter J Trainer, Giuseppe Fanciulli, Osvaldo Oliva, Alessandra Pala, Alessandra Dettori, Michael Besser, Giuseppe Delitala and Ashley B Grossman
Korbonits M, Trainer PJ, Fanciulli G, Oliva O, Pala A, Dettori A, Besser GM, Delitala G, Grossman AB. l-Arginine is unlikely to exert neuroendocrine effects in humans via the generation of nitric oxide. Eur J Endocrinol 1996;135:543–7. ISSN 0804–4643
There is now considerable evidence that nitric oxide is an important neuroregulatory agent, but there has been very little investigation of its possible role in neuroendocrine mechanisms in humans. We have investigated the effects of two nitric oxide precursors, l-arginine and molsidomine, under basal conditions on the pituitary hormones growth hormone (GH), prolactin, luteinizing hormone, folliclestimulating hormone, thyrotrophin, adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and vasopressin, and also on serum cortisol; we have also studied the effect of l-arginine on circulating prolactin, ACTH and cortisol in normal human subjects under hypoglycaemic stress. l-Arginine stimulated both GH and prolactin release under basal conditions but had no effect on the other hormones studied, while the nitric oxide donor molsidomine showed no effect on any hormone studied. l-Arginine potentiated the hypoglycaemia-stimulated release of ACTH but did not influence the rise in GH. The current studies suggest that the effects of l-arginine on the stimulation of GH and prolactin release are unlikely to be mediated via the generation of nitric oxide.
A Grossman, Department of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE, UK
Marietta Stadler, Larissa Tomann, Angela Storka, Michael Wolzt, Slobodan Peric, Christian Bieglmayer, Giovanni Pacini, Suzanne L Dickson, Helmut Brath, Paul Bech, Rudolf Prager and Márta Korbonits
To stop smoking is commonly associated with significant weight gain, but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. We assessed the effects of smoking cessation on body weight, insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and appetite.
Subjects and methods
Twenty-seven long-term smokers (n=27; nine females/18 males, 28±1 years, 22.9±0.6 kg/m2) attending an ambulatory smoking cessation program in a community hospital in Vienna, Austria were examined at baseline (Visit A; still smoking) and after a minimum of 3 months of smoking abstinence (Visit B; n=14); relapsed smokers were not followed up. Participants underwent 3-h oral glucose tolerance tests and body composition measurements at each study visit. Fasting (QUICKI) and dynamic (oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)) insulin sensitivity and β-cell secretion (insulinogenic index 140 (IGI40)) were calculated. Food intake was quantified with a free choice buffet. Fasting plasma concentrations of neuropeptide-Y (NPY), peptide-YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), leptin, ghrelin, and visfatin were measured.
After >3 months' smoking abstinence, body weight, and fat mass were increased (+4 and +22% respectively, P<0.05) and fasting insulin sensitivity deteriorated (QUICKI: post, 0.37±0.02 vs baseline, 0.41±0.2; P<0.05), while OGIS remained unchanged throughout. IGI40 increased by 31% after >3 months' smoking abstinence (P<0.01). Carbohydrate ingestion increased after stopping smoking (P<0.05). NPY fasting levels were increased after >3 months (P<0.05), PYY, GLP1, leptin, ghrelin, and visfatin were unchanged.
Smoking cessation is associated with transient metabolic changes including increased β-cell secretion in response to glucose and fasting insulin resistance. These alterations may be associated with or contribute to the body weight gain after smoking cessation.