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  • Author: Luiz Eduardo Wildemberg x
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Leandro Kasuki, Luiz Eduardo Wildemberg, and Mônica R Gadelha

Acromegaly is associated with high morbidity and elevated mortality when not adequately treated. Surgery is the first-line treatment for most patients as it is the only one that can lead to immediate cure. In patients who are not cured by surgery, treatment is currently based on a trial-and-error approach. First-generation somatostatin receptor ligands (fg-SRL) are initiated for most patients, although approximately 25% of patients present resistance to this drug class. Some biomarkers of treatment outcome are described in the literature, with the aim of categorizing patients into different groups to individualize their treatments using a personalized approach. In this review, we will discuss the current status of precision medicine for the treatment of acromegaly and future perspectives on the use of personalized medicine for this purpose.

Free access

Leandro Kasuki, Luiz Eduardo Armondi Wildemberg, Leonardo Vieira Neto, Jorge Marcondes, Christina M Takiya, and Mônica R Gadelha

Introduction

Only one study has evaluated Ki-67 as a predictor of the response to somatostatin analog therapy in acromegaly; however, other predictors like somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) and cytokeratin pattern expressions were not considered.

Objective

To evaluate whether Ki-67 is a predictor of octreotide LAR (OCT-LAR) response in somatotropinomas independent of SSTR2 and cytokeratin expression patterns.

Methods

Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The percentage of cell nuclei that were immunolabeled for Ki-67 and the percentage of cells with positive SSTR2 staining were calculated. SSTR2 expression was considered high when ≥25%, and a cutoff of 2.3% was designated for Ki-67. Tumors were classified as densely or sparsely granulated according to the cytokeratin pattern.

Results

Thirty-one somatotropinomas were studied. Fourteen patients (45.2%) were controlled with OCT-LAR therapy. The median Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was higher in patients not controlled with OCT-LAR than in those controlled (1.63 and 0.15 respectively, P=0.002). Higher SSTR2 expression and densely granulated tumors were correlated with control as well (P=0.04 and 0.038 respectively). There was no difference in Ki-67 levels between patients with high and low SSTR2 expression (P=0.651). After multivariate analysis, both Ki-67 and SSTR2 remained statistically significant as predictors of OCT-LAR response (P=0.017 and 0.012 respectively). The Ki-67 LI was higher in sparsely than in densely granulated tumors (P=0.047).

Conclusions

Ki-67 is a predictor of response to OCT-LAR in acromegaly, independent of SSTR2 expression and relates to cytokeratin patterns.

Restricted access

Jose Italo Soares Mota, Rui Milton Patrício Silva-Júnior, Clarissa Silva Martins, Ana Carolina Bueno, Luiz Eduardo Wildemberg, Ximene Lima da Silva Antunes, Jorge Guilherme Okanobo Ozaki, Fernanda Borchers Coeli-Lacchini, Carlos Garcia-Peral, Antonio Edson Rocha Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Santos, Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Helio Rubens Machado, Marcelo Volpon dos Santos, Leandro M Colli, Monica R Gadelha, Sonir Roberto R Antonini, and Margaret de Castro

Objectives

To evaluate how telomere length behaves in adamantinomtous craniopharyngioma (aCP) and if it contributes to the pathogenesis of aCPs with and without CTNNB1 mutations.

Design

Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling 42 aCP patients from 2 tertiary institutions.

Methods

Clinicopathological features were retrieved from the patient’s charts. Fresh frozen tumors were used for RNA and DNA analyses. Telomere length was evaluated by qPCR (T/S ratio). Somatic mutations in TERT promoter (TERTp) and CTNNB1 were detected by Sanger and/or whole-exome sequencing. We performed RNA-Seq to identify differentially expressed genes in aCPs presenting with shorter or longer telomere lengths.

Results

Mutations in CTNNB1 were detected in 29 (69%) tumors. There was higher frequency of CTNNB1 mutations in aCPs from patients diagnosed under the age of 15 years (85% vs 15%; P = 0.04) and a trend to recurrent disease (76% vs 24%; P = 0.1). No mutation was detected in the TERTp region. The telomeres were shorter in CTNNB1-mutated aCPs (0.441, IQR: 0.297–0.597vs 0.607, IQR: 0.445–0.778; P = 0.04), but it was neither associated with clinicopathological features nor with recurrence. RNAseq identified a total of 387 differentially expressed genes, generating two clusters, being one enriched for short telomeres and CTNNB1-mutated aCPs.

Conclusions: CTNNB1

mutations are more frequent in children and adolescents and appear to associate with progressive disease. CTNNB1-mutated aCPs have shorter telomeres, demonstrating a relationship between the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and telomere biology in the pathogenesis of aCPs.