Few topics have elicited more emotion than the issue of screening for vitamin D status and the discussion on the need for global supplementation with vitamin D metabolites. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the USPSTF posted draft research plan with the aim of making an update recommendations statement, possibly next year. Here, we discuss two different viewpoints on screening for vitamin D status: for and against. In the literature there are scientifically sound opinions supporting pro and cons positions. However, we believe that the best way to definitively elucidate this issue is the implementation of a randomized controlled trial evaluating clinical outcomes or harms in persons screened versus those not screened for vitamin D deficiency. The feasibility of such a trial is probably questionable owing to uncertainties still present concerning threshold for vitamin D sufficiency and end points (that is, for example, improved bone mineral density, reduced risk of falls and so on) to be reached.
Salvatore Minisola, Luciano Colangelo, Cristiana Cipriani, Jessica Pepe, Dana Paulina Cook and Chantal Mathieu
Jessica Pepe, Daniele Diacinti, Emanuela Fratini, Italo Nofroni, Antonella D’Angelo, Roberta Pilotto, Claudio Savoriti, Luciano Colangelo, Orlando Raimo, Mirella Cilli, Cristiana Cipriani and Salvatore Minisola
The prevalence of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is unknown. We assessed both prevalence and severity of AAC in PHPT postmenopausal women.
In this study 70 PHPT postmenopausal women and 70 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Each participant underwent biochemical evaluation, lateral spine radiograph, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement (lumbar, femoral, radial sites), and kidney ultrasound. Lateral lumbar films were analyzed in the region of L1–L4 vertebrae and the Kauppila score (a semi-quantitative grading system) was used to assess the severity of AAC.
There were no differences regarding demographic and cardiovascular risk factors in the two groups. PHPT patients had higher prevalence of kidney stones (30% vs 7%, P=0.0008) and lower radial BMD values (0.558±0.071 vs 0.588±0.082 g/cm2, P<0.05) compared with controls. PHPT patients showed higher prevalence of AAC (31 vs 18, P=0.03), with more severe calcifications (Kauppila score 7.35±6.1 vs 5.05±3.5, P=0.007). PHPT patients with AAC were older and had been suffering from the disease for a longer period compared with those without ACC. Moreover, PHPT patients with severe AAC had mean higher serum parathyroid hormone levels compared with patients with moderate or mild calcifications. In PHPT patients with AAC, multiple regression analysis, adjusted for age and years since diagnosis, showed that only parathyroid hormone significantly correlated with Kauppila score.
We found a higher prevalence and severity of AAC in PHPT related to parathyroid hormone effect.
Jessica Pepe, Cristiana Cipriani, Mario Curione, Federica Biamonte, Luciano Colangelo, Vittoria Danese, Veronica Cecchetti, Chiara Sonato, Federica Ferrone, Mirella Cilli and Salvatore Minisola
Hypercalcemia may induce arrhythmias. There are no data on the prevalence of arrhythmias in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in daily life. Aim of the study was to investigate both the prevalence of arrhythmias in patients with PHPT compared to controls and the impact of parathyroidectomy, evaluated by 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring.
This is a randomized study.
Twenty-six postmenopausal women with PHPT and 26 controls were enrolled. PHPT patients were randomized to two groups: 13 underwent parathyroidectomy (Group A) and 13 were followed up conservatively (Group B). After 6 months, patients were studied again. Each patient underwent mineral metabolism biochemical evaluation, bone mineral density measurement, standard ECG and 24-h ECG monitoring.
PHPT patients showed higher calcium and parathyroid hormone compared to controls and a higher prevalence of both supraventricular (SVBPs) and ventricular premature beats (VPBs) during 24-h ECG monitoring. Groups A and B showed no differences in mean baseline biochemical values and ECG parameters. Mean value of QTc in PHPT groups was in the normal range at baseline, but significantly shorter than controls. A negative correlation was found between QTc and ionized calcium levels (r = −0.48, P < 0.05). After parathyroidectomy, Group A had a significant reduction in SVPBs and VPBs compared to baseline and restored normal QTc. Group B showed no significant changes after a 6-month period.
The increased prevalence of SVPBs and VPBs is significantly reduced by parathyroidectomy, and it is mainly related to the short QTc caused by hypercalcemia.
Jessica Pepe, Mario Curione, Sergio Morelli, Marisa Varrenti, Camillo Cammarota, Mirella Cilli, Sara Piemonte, Cristiana Cipriani, Claudio Savoriti, Orlando Raimo, Federica De Lucia, Luciano Colangelo, Carolina Clementelli, Elisabetta Romagnoli and Salvatore Minisola
To investigate whether parathyroidectomy (PTx) reverses risk factors for arrhythmias related to the QT dynamic changes evaluated during bicycle ergometry exercise test (ET).
Twenty-four postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) (mean age 60.0±8.4 years) and 30 sex- and age-matched controls underwent ET, echocardiography, and biochemical evaluation. The following stages were considered during ET: rest, peak exercise, and recovery. The patients were randomized to two groups: 12 underwent PTx (group A) and 12 were followed-up conservatively (group B). After 6 months, the patients were studied again.
Groups A and B showed no differences in mean baseline biochemical values, echocardiographic parameters, and QTc interval. PHPT patients showed an increased occurrence of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) during ET compared with controls (37.0 vs 6.6%, P=0.03). Serum calcium level was a predictor of VPBs (P=0.05). Mean value of QTc was in the normal range at baseline (group A: 401±16.9; group B: 402.25±13.5 ms) but significantly lower than controls (417.8±25.1 ms, P<0.01). A negative correlation was found between QTc and calcium values (P=0.03). Physiological reduction of QTc interval from rest to peak exercise was not observed in PHPT patients before surgery. After PTx, group A had a significant reduction in VPBs compared with baseline (at baseline, 5 of 12 vs none of 12 patients after PTx, P=0.03) and a restored normal QT adaptation during ET. Group B showed no significant changes after a 6-month period.
PTx reduces the occurrence of VPBs and restored the QTc adaptation during ET.