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Adriana G Ioachimescu, Maria Fleseriu, Andrew R Hoffman, T Brooks Vaughan III and Laurence Katznelson

Background

Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the main treatment for patients with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Recently, an increasing number of reports emphasized DAs’ psychological side effects, either de novo or as exacerbations of prior psychiatric disease.

Methods

Review of prospective and retrospective studies (PubMed 1976, September 2018) evaluating the psychological profile of DA-treated patients with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Case series and case reports of psychiatric complications were also reviewed.

Results

Most studies were cross-sectional and had a control group of healthy volunteers or patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. There were few prospective studies, with/without control group, that included small numbers of patients. Compared with controls, patients with hyperprolactinemia generally had worse quality of life, anxiety, depression and certain personality traits. Patients receiving DAs had higher impulsivity scores than normoprolactinemic controls. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) were reported in both genders, with hypersexuality mostly in men. Multiple ICDs were sometimes reported in the same patient, usually reversible after DA discontinuation. In case reports, DA therapy was temporally associated with severe depression, manic episodes or psychosis, which improved after discontinuation and administration of psychiatric medications. Gender type of DA, dose and duration of therapy did not correlate with occurrence of psychiatric pathology.

Conclusion

Patients with hyperprolactinemia receiving DAs may develop changes in mood and behavior regardless of prior psychiatric history. Increased awareness for ICDs, depression, mania and other types of psychosis is needed by all physicians who prescribe DAs. Larger prospective controlled clinical studies are needed to delineate prevalence, risk stratification and management.

Free access

Laurence Katznelson, Mara W Robinson, Caryn L Coyle, Hang Lee and Christina E Farrell

Objective: One of the factors that may promote deterioration in quality of life and body composition in elderly men is the relative decline in serum testosterone levels with aging. In this study, we assessed the effects of modest doses of testosterone and a home-based strengthening program on quality of life and body composition in elderly men with relative testosterone insufficiency.

Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study (testosterone), and additional randomization to a resistance exercise program or no additional exercise for 12 weeks in men between ages of 65 and 85 years with relative testosterone insufficiency.

Methods: Seventy sedentary, community dwelling men were randomized to a 5 mg testoderm transdermal system applied daily vs placebo system, and additionally randomized to a home-based resistance exercise program. Subjects were randomized to Group 1 (testosterone plus exercise), Group 2 (testosterone plus no exercise), Group 3 (placebo plus exercise), and Group 4 (placebo plus no exercise). Endpoints included quality of life (assessed by the short form-36 questionnaire) and body composition (measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry scan).

Results: Serum testosterone increased by a mean of 10.0 ± 1.9, 6.6 ± 1.6, 0.52 ± 0.6, and 0.5 ± 0.6 nmol/l in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. There was a significant interaction of testosterone and exercise on quality of life in the domains of physical functioning (P = 0.03), role physical (P = 0.01), general health (P = 0.049), and social functioning (P = 0.04). There were no effects of testosterone or exercise on quality of life alone, nor in body composition parameters.

Conclusions: Modest testosterone supplementation to elderly men with relative testosterone insufficiency improved quality of life when accompanied by an exercise program. The combination of testosterone and exercise may be an important strategy in the elderly, though further studies are necessary to determine the long-term impact on body composition and function and for analysis of risk/benefit ratios as well.

Open access

Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Philippe F Backeljauw, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret C S Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Pierre Chatelain, Catherine S Choong, David R Clemmons, Laurie E Cohen, Pinchas Cohen, Jan Frystyk, Adda Grimberg, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Morey W Haymond, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Jeff M P Holly, Reiko Horikawa, Charlotte Höybye, Jens Otto L Jorgensen, Gudmundur Johannsson, Anders Juul, Laurence Katznelson, John J Kopchick, K O Lee, Kuk-Wha Lee, Xiaoping Luo, Shlomo Melmed, Bradley S Miller, Madhusmita Misra, Vera Popovic, Ron G Rosenfeld, Judith Ross, Richard J Ross, Paul Saenger, Christian J Strasburger, Michael O Thorner, Haim Werner and Kevin Yuen

Objective

The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH).

Participants

A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry.

Evidence

Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues.

Consensus process

Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors.

Conclusions

LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations.