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Marika Paalanne, Marja Vääräsmäki, Sanna Mustaniemi, Marjaana Tikanmäki, Karoliina Wehkalampi, Hanna-Maria Matinolli, Johan Eriksson, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Laure Morin-Papunen, and Eero Kajantie

Objective:

It has been suggested that adverse early life exposures increase the risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in later life. We hypothesized that women born preterm would have more biochemical and clinical signs of PCOS than women born at term.

Design:

The ESTER Preterm Birth Study participants were born in Northern Finland, and identified from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort and the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Altogether, 74 women born very or moderately preterm (<34 gestational weeks, VMPT), 127 born late preterm (at 34–36 weeks, LPT), and 184 born full term (≥37 weeks, controls) were included in the analysis (mean age 23.2y).

Methods:

We measured serum total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated free androgen index (FAI). PCOS according to the clinical and biochemical signs was defined either as hirsutism and oligoamenorrhea (via questionnaire), or as oligoamenorrhea and elevated testosterone levels (>2.4 nmol/l).

Results:

Women born VMPT/LPT exhibited 33.0% (8.7, 62.8)/16.4% (-2.0, 38.1) higher testosterone, 28.5% (5.3, 45.9)/24.1% (5.6, 38.9) lower SHBG levels, and 64.6% (19.4, 127.1)/ 42.5% (11.1, 82.9) higher FAI than controls after adjusting for age and recruitment cohort, maternal BMI, smoking, and pregnancy disorders, parental education, history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction or stroke, and subject’s birth weight SD. Odds ratios for having PCOS were 1.67 (0.44, 6.23)/3.11 (1.26, 7.70).

Conclusions:

Women born preterm have a more hyperandrogenic hormonal profile, and those born LPT are approximately three times more likely at risk to have PCOS compared to women born at term.

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Maria-Elina Mosorin, Annina Haverinen, Meri-Maija Ollila, Tanja Nordström, Jari Jokelainen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Katri Puukka, Aimo Ruokonen, Juha Auvinen, Terhi Piltonen, Laure Morin-Papunen, and Juha S Tapanainen

Objective

The use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) worsens glucose tolerance, but the risk for glucose metabolism disorders remains controversial.

Design

The study is a prospective longitudinal population-based cohort study.

Methods

The study was based on a cohort population that comprised 1879 women born in 1966. At age 46, the women answered a questionnaire on contraceptive use and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose metabolism indices were evaluated in current CHC (n = 153), progestin-only contraceptive (POC, n = 842), and non-hormonal contraceptive users (n = 884).

Results

In the entire study population, current CHC use was significantly associated with prediabetes (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.2) and type 2 diabetes (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–9.7) compared to non-hormonal contraceptive use. After 5 years of use, the prediabetes risk increased 2.2-fold (95% CI: 1.3–3.7) and type 2 diabetes risk increased 4.5-fold (95% CI: 1.5–13.5). Compared with the current POC use, current CHC use was significantly associated with prediabetes (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0). Current POC use was not associated with any glucose metabolism disorders. The results prevailed after adjusting for BMI and socioeconomic status.

Conclusions

CHC use in perimenopausal women was associated with a significantly increased risk of glucose metabolism disorders. This association should be considered in women with increased metabolic risk.