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L T van Hulsteijn, A Louisse, B Havekes, A A Kaptein, J C Jansen, F J Hes, J W A Smit, and E P M Corssmit

Context

Germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes predispose carriers for developing paragangliomas, and studies on their quality of life (QoL) are scarce.

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to assess QoL in patients with paragangliomas (PGL), to evaluate long-term QoL, and to explore potential differences in QoL between SDH mutation carriers and paraganglioma patients without an SDH mutation.

Design

Cross-sectional, case–control study.

Setting

Tertiary referral center.

Subjects

One hundred and seventy four paraganglioma patients were included: 25 SDHB, two SDHC, and 122 SDHD mutation carriers and 25 patients without an SDH mutation. They provided 100 peers as control persons. Furthermore, patients were compared with age-adjusted reference populations.

Main outcome measures

QoL was assessed using three validated health-related QoL questionnaires: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Index 20, and the Short Form 36.

Results

Patients reported a significantly impaired QoL compared with their own controls, mainly on fatigue and physical condition subscales. Compared with age-adjusted literature values, patients had significantly impaired scores on physical, psychological, and social subscales. A decreased QoL was mainly related to paraganglioma-associated complaints.

There was no difference in QoL between the various SDH mutation carriers or paraganglioma patients without an SDH mutation. QoL in asymptomatic mutation carriers, i.e. without manifest disease, did not differ from QoL of the general population. Long-term results in 41 patients showed no alteration in QoL besides a reduced level of activity.

Conclusion

QoL is decreased in paraganglioma patients but stable when measured over time.

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R Pasquali, F Casanueva, M Haluzik, L van Hulsteijn, S Ledoux, M P Monteiro, J Salvador, F Santini, H Toplak, and O M Dekkers

Obesity is an emerging condition, with a prevalence of ~20%. Although the simple measurement of BMI is likely a simplistic approach to obesity, BMI is easily calculated, and there are currently no data showing that more sophisticated methods are more useful to guide the endocrine work-up in obesity. An increased BMI leads to a number of hormonal changes. Additionally, concomitant hormonal diseases can be present in obesity and have to be properly diagnosed – which in turn might be more difficult due to alterations caused by body fatness itself. The present European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Guideline on the Endocrine Work-up in Obesity acknowledges the increased prevalence of many endocrine conditions in obesity. It is recommended to test all patients with obesity for thyroid function, given the high prevalence of hypothyroidism in obesity. For hypercortisolism, male hypogonadism and female gonadal dysfunction, hormonal testing is only recommended if case of clinical suspicion of an underlying endocrine disorder. The guideline underlines that weight loss in obesity should be emphasized as key to restoration of hormonal imbalances and that treatment and that the effect of treating endocrine disorders on weight loss is only modest.

Free access

L T van Hulsteijn, R Pasquali, F Casanueva, M Haluzik, S Ledoux, M P Monteiro, J Salvador, F Santini, H Toplak, and O M Dekkers

Objective

The increasing prevalence of obesity is expected to promote the demand for endocrine testing. To facilitate evidence guided testing, we aimed to assess the prevalence of endocrine disorders in patients with obesity. The review was carried out as part of the Endocrine Work-up for the Obesity Guideline of the European Society of Endocrinology.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

Methods

A search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and COCHRANE Library for original articles assessing the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hypercortisolism, hypogonadism (males) or hyperandrogenism (females) in patients with obesity. Data were pooled in a random-effects logistic regression model and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results

Sixty-eight studies were included, concerning a total of 19.996 patients with obesity. The pooled prevalence of overt (newly diagnosed or already treated) and subclinical hypothyroidism was 14.0% (95% CI: 9.7–18.9) and 14.6% (95% CI: 9.2–20.9), respectively. Pooled prevalence of hypercortisolism was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.3–1.6). Pooled prevalence of hypogonadism when measuring total testosterone or free testosterone was 42.8% (95% CI: 37.6–48.0) and 32.7% (95% CI: 23.1–43.0), respectively. Heterogeneity was high for all analyses.

Conclusions

The prevalence of endocrine disorders in patients with obesity is considerable, although the underlying mechanisms are complex. Given the cross-sectional design of the studies included, no formal distinction between endocrine causes and consequences of obesity could be made.