C Nederstigt, B S Uitbeijerse, L G M Janssen, E P M Corssmit, E J P de Koning and O M Dekkers
The association between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other auto-immune diseases is well known. However, a quantitative overview of all associated auto-immune diseases and their prevalence in T1D is lacking.
We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane library in September 2018 to identify relevant articles about the prevalence of the following associated auto-immune diseases in T1D cohorts: auto-immune thyroid disease, celiac disease, gastric autoimmunity including pernicious anemia, vitiligo and adrenal gland insufficiency. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate pooled prevalence using a random-effects model. Furthermore, random-effects meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the association between prevalence and mean age or diabetes duration.
One hundred eighty articles were eligible including a total of 293 889 type 1 diabetes patients. Hypothyroidism (65 studies) was prevalent in 9.8% (95% CI: 7.5–12.3) of patients. Meta-regression showed that for every 10-year age increase, hypothyroidism prevalence increased 4.6% (95% CI: 2.6–6.6, P < 0.000, 54 studies). Weighted prevalence of celiac disease was 4.5% (95% CI: 4.0–5.5, 87 studies). Gastric autoimmunity was found in 4.3% of patients (95% CI: 1.6–8.2, 8 studies) and vitiligo in 2.4% (95% CI: 1.2–3.9, 14 studies) of patients. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.0–0.4, 14 studies) and hyperthyroidism was found in 1.3 percent (95% CI: 0.9–1.8, 45 studies) of type 1 diabetes patients. For all analyses, statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate to high.
The prevalence of antibody-mediated auto-immune disease is high among type 1 diabetes patients. Especially hypothyroidism and celiac disease are frequently found.
M P Brugts, J G L M Luermans, E G W M Lentjes, N J van Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, F A L van der Horst, P H Th J Slee, S W J Lamberts and J A M L Janssen
A low serum total IGF1 is considered as a diagnostic indicator of GH deficiency (GHD) in the presence of hypopituitarism. Introduction of IRMA and chemiluminescent immunometric assay (CLIA) IGF1 immunoassays has introduced endogenous antibodies as a new source of interference. In general, this goes unnoticed and might lead to unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
A 56-year-old man was referred with a decline in physical performance, unexplained osteopenia, and weight loss of 3 kg over the past 8 months. Although clinical signs and symptoms were unremarkable, laboratory results pointed to secondary hypothyroidism and secondary hypogonadism. In addition, the serum total IGF1 level (CLIA; Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics) was in the low normal range. Two GH stimulation tests were performed, but these tests did not support the diagnosis GHD. Moreover, IGF1 bioactivity measured by the kinase receptor activation assay was normal. Interference of heterophilic antibodies was considered. After pretreatment with specific heterophilic blocking tubes that contain blocking reagents to eliminate heterophilic antibodies, serum-free thyroxine, testosterone, and IGF1 levels turned out to be normal.
To the best of our knowledge, we here describe the first case in the literature of a patient with low serum total IGF1 levels due to interference from heterophilic antibodies in the used IGF1 immunoassay. When confronted with low-IGF1 levels that do not fit the clinical picture, interference of heterophilic antibodies should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Ammar Muhammad, Eva C Coopmans, Patric J D Delhanty, Alof H G Dallenga, Iain K Haitsma, Joseph A M J L Janssen, Aart J van der Lely and Sebastian J C M M Neggers
To assess the efficacy and safety after 48 weeks of treatment with pasireotide long-acting-release (PAS-LAR) alone or in combination with pegvisomant in patients with acromegaly. In addition, we assessed the relation between insulin secretion and pasireotide-induced hyperglycemia.
The PAPE extension study is a prospective follow-up study until 48 weeks after the core study of 24 weeks.
Fifty-nine out of 61 patients entered the extension study. Efficacy was defined as the percentage of patients achieving IGF-I normalization (≤1.2× the upper limit of normal (ULN)) at 48 weeks through protocol-based adjustment of pegvisomant and PAS-LAR doses. At baseline, insulin secretion was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
At the end of the study, median IGF-I was 0.98× ULN, and 77% of patients achieved normal IGF-I levels with a mean pegvisomant dose of 64 mg/week, and an overall cumulative pegvisomant dose reduction of 52%. Frequency of diabetes mellitus increased from 68% at 24 weeks to 77% at 48 weeks, and nine patients discontinued PAS-LAR treatment, mainly because of severe hyperglycemia. Pasireotide-induced hyperglycemia was inversely correlated with baseline insulin secretion (r = −0.37, P < 0.005).
PAS-LAR normalizes IGF-I levels in most acromegaly patients, with a 50% pegvisomant-sparing effect. However, PAS-LAR treatment coincided with a high incidence of diabetes mellitus. The risk for developing diabetes during PAS-LAR treatment seems inversely related to insulin secretion at baseline.
Mark Wijnen, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Joseph A M J L Janssen, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Erna M C Michiels, Marie-Lise C van Veelen-Vincent, Alof H G Dallenga, J Herbert van den Berge, Carolien M van Rij, Aart-Jan van der Lely and Sebastian J C M M Neggers
Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation.
Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data.
We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5–23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection (n = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy (n = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy (n = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy (n = 8), and 90Yttrium brachytherapy (n = 21).
Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma.
Long-term health conditions were comparable after different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches and were generally more frequent in patients with childhood- compared with adult-onset disease.