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Wei Wei, Hongmin Zhao, Aili Wang, Ming Sui, Kun Liang, Haiyun Deng, Yukun Ma, Yajuan Zhang, Hongxiu Zhang, and Yuanyuan Guan

Objective

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent reproductive and metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance (IR). Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal herbs that has been used as an insulin sensitizer. BBR may have a potential therapeutic value for PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BBR in comparison to metformin (MET) on the metabolic features of women with PCOS.

Design and methods

Eighty-nine subjects with PCOS and IR subjects were randomized into one of three treatment groups: BBR+compound cyproterone acetate (CPA; n=31), MET+CPA (n=30), and placebo+CPA (n=28) for 3 months. Clinical characteristics of the women and metabolic and hormonal parameters were assessed before and after the period of treatment.

Results

Treatment with BBR in comparison to MET showed decrease in waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; P<0.01), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC; P<0.05) as well as increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG; P<0.05). Similarly, treatment with BBR in comparison to placebo showed decrease in WHR, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for IR, area under the curve of insulin, TC, LDLC, and TG (P<0.05) as well as increase in HDLC and SHBG (P<0.01).

Conclusions

Intake of BBR improved some of the metabolic and hormonal derangements in a group of treated Chinese women with PCOS. Main effects could be related to the changes in body composition in obesity and dyslipidemia. Further controlled studies are needed for the assessment of the potential favorable metabolic effects of BBR in women with PCOS.

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Kun Zhang, Lin jie Wang, Lian Duan, Hongbo Yang, Hui Pan, Xin Lian, Yong Yao, and Huijuan Zhu

Objective: To investigate the incidence of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis initiation/recovery after treatment and to identify predictive risk factors for noninitiation/recovery.

Methods: A total of 127 consecutive suprasellar germ cell tumor (GCT) patients managed at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (2006-2019) were retrospectively analyzed. Prepubertal patients (followed up until 13 years of age for girls and 14 years of age for boys) and patients with HPG dysfunction (followed up for 2 years) were divided into the initiation/recovery and noninitiation/recovery groups.

Results: Of 127 suprasellar GCT patients, 75 met the follow-up criteria, and 28 (37.3%) of whom experienced HPG axis initiation/recovery. Compared to the noninitiation/recovery group, the initiation/recovery group included more males and had shorter delayed diagnosis times, smaller tumor sizes, lower panhypopituitarism rates, thinner pituitary stalk widths, lower visual deficit rates, and higher serum testosterone and estradiol levels. The cutoff values of pituitary stalk width, tumor size, and delayed diagnosis time used to predict noninitiation/recovery were 6.9 mm, 6.9 mm and 1.7 years, respectively. Tumor size ≥6.9 mm (odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-25.8, P = 0.001), panhypopituitarism (OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.4-17.6, P = 0.013), and delayed diagnosis time ≥1.7 years (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 1.5-20.7, P = 0.009) were risk factors for noninitiation/recovery.

Conclusions: Among suprasellar GCT patients, nearly one-third of prepubertal patients and patients with HPG dysfunction experience HPG axis initiation/recovery after treatment. Tumor size ≥6.9 mm, panhypopituitarism, and delayed diagnosis time ≥1.7 years were identified as predictive risk factors for noninitiation/recovery.

Free access

Xiaoyan Guo, Shu Zhang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Hongmei Wu, Huanmin Du, Hongbin Shi, Chongjin Wang, Yang Xia, Xing Liu, Chunlei Li, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Guowei Huang, Qiyu Jia, Honglin Zhao, Kun Song, and Kaijun Niu

Aim

It is widely known that inflammation is related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have shown a direct relationship between the immune system and T2D using a reliable biomarker. Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an easy-to-analyze inflammation biomarker, but few studies have assessed the relationship between NLR and T2D. In order to evaluate how NLR is related to T2D, we designed a large-scale cross-sectional and prospective cohort study in an adult population.

Subjects and methods

Participants were recruited from the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n=87 686) and a prospective (n=38 074) assessment were performed. Participants without a history of T2D were followed up for ∼6 years (with a median follow-up of 2.7 years). Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the quintiles of NLR and T2D (covariates: age, sex, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes).

Results

The prevalence and incidence of T2D were 4.9% and 6.8/1000 person-years respectively. The adjusted odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% CI) of the highest NLR quintile were 1.34 (1.21, 1.49) and 1.39 (1.09, 1.78) (both P for trend <0.01) respectively as compared to the lowest quintile of NLR. Leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts do not significantly predict the eventual development of T2D.

Conclusion

The present study demonstrates that NLR is related to the prevalence and incidence of T2D, and it suggests that NLR may be an efficient and accurate prognostic biomarker for T2D.

Free access

Feng Cai, Yi-Dan Zhang, Xiuli Zhao, Ya-Kun Yang, Si-Hai Ma, Cong-Xin Dai, Xiao-Hai Liu, Yong Yao, Ming Feng, Jun-Ji Wei, Bing Xing, Yong-Hui Jiao, Zhen-Qing Wei, Zhen-Ming Yin, Bo Zhang, Feng Gu, and Ren-Zhi Wang

Objective

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene (AIP) is associated with pituitary adenoma (PA). AIP has not been sequenced in East Asian PA populations, so we performed this study in a Han Chinese cohort.

Design

Our study included six familial PA pedigrees comprising 16 patients and 27 unaffected relatives, as well as 216 sporadic PA (SPA) patients and 100 unrelated healthy controls.

Methods

AIP sequencing was carried out on genomic DNA isolated from blood samples. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and microsatellite marker analyses on DNA from the paired tumor tissues were performed for loss of heterozygosity analysis.

Results

We identified three common and four rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one intron insertion, one novel synonymous variant, four novel missense variants, and a reported nonsense mutation in three familial isolated PA (FIPA) cases from the same family. Large genetic deletions were not observed in the germline but were seen in the sporadic tumor DNA from three missense variant carriers. The prevalence of AIP pathogenic variants in PA patients here was low (3.88%), but was higher in somatotropinoma patients (9.30%), especially in young adults (≤30 years) and pediatric (≥18 years) paients (17.24% and 25.00% respectively). All AIP variant patients suffered from macroadenomas. However, the AIP mutation rate in FIPA families was low in this cohort (16.67%, 1/6 families).

Conclusion

AIP gene mutation may not be frequent in FIPA or SPA from the Han Chinese population. AIP sequencing and long-term follow-up investigations should be performed for young patients with large PAs and their families with PA predisposition.

Free access

Shunming Zhang, Yeqing Gu, Liu Wang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Min Lu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Honglei Wang, Hongbin Shi, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Huiling Xiang, and Kaijun Niu

Background and Aims

The protective effect of garlic against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in animal studies. However, in humans, the association between garlic consumption and NAFLD is unclear. The study sought to explore the association between habitual raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed NAFLD among Chinese adults.

Methods

We performed a study of 11,326 men and 12,780 women aged 20–90 years. Habitual food intake was assessed using a validated and standardized 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the liver ultrasonography and self-reported alcohol intake. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of raw garlic intake with newly diagnosed NAFLD.

Results

The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 28.9% in men and 10.1% in women, respectively. In men, the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having NAFLD across increasing frequency of raw garlic intake were 1.00 (reference) for <1 time/week, 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) for 1–3 times/week, 0.66 (0.54, 0.80) for 4–6 times/week, and 0.71 (0.55, 0.90) for ≥7 times/week (P for trend <0.0001). The odds ratio for NAFLD associated with each 1 g of raw garlic/1000 kcal was 0.93 (0.90, 0.97) in men. In women, no significant association between raw garlic intake and NAFLD was identified. These associations between raw garlic intake and NAFLD were consistent in several sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions

Frequent consumption of raw garlic is inversely associated with NAFLD in Chinese men. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.