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Kirstine Stochholm, Svend Juul, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, and Claus Højbjerg Gravholt


Childhood onset GH deficiency (CO-GHD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality; however, the patients' socioeconomic profile as adults is not fully known.


Register study using Danish nationwide registries. Two hundred and sixty GHD males and 156 GHD females and 25 358 male and 15 110 female controls were included.


Information was obtained concerning cohabitation, parenthood, education, income, retirement, convictions, and death. Income was analyzed using conditional logistic regression, and other outcomes were analyzed using Cox regression. Subgroups of GHD patients with malignant tumors, craniopharyngioma, idiopathic GHD, and others were investigated separately.


Both male and female GHD patients had a significantly worse outcome on all studied socioeconomic parameters. Fewer GHD patients lived in partnerships and entered them later (male hazard ratio (HR): 0.31; female HR: 0.33), had fewer parenthoods (male HR: 0.26; female HR: 0.26), lower educational level (male HR: 0.58; female HR: 0.48), lower income, higher risk of retirement (male HR: 13.4; female HR: 24.2), and fewer convictions (male HR: 0.67; female HR: 0.49). Mortality was increased (male HR: 10.7; female HR: 21.4). Adjusted for marital and educational status, male HR of death was 5.2 and female HR 10.5. Patients with idiopathic GHD had a socioeconomic profile similar to controls.


The primary causes of CO-GHD and concomitant diseases severely impair socioeconomic conditions and impact mortality; only the subgroup of patients with idiopathic GHD conditions was similar to the background population.

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Kirstine Stochholm, Britta Hjerrild, Kristian Havmand Mortensen, Svend Juul, Morten Frydenberg, and Claus Højbjerg Gravholt


Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by hypogonadism, short adult height, increased morbidity and mortality, contrasted by self-reported normal quality of life and perception of health. Small studies have indicated a similar level of education compared with the background population.


To study the socioeconomic profile in TS and the impact of these factors on mortality.

Materials and methods

Register study using Danish nationwide registries. Nine hundred and seventy-nine TS females and 94 850 controls were included. Information concerning cohabitation, motherhoods, level of education (bachelor degree), income, retirement, and death were obtained. One hundred and three TS and 5989 controls died during the study period. For the socioeconomic parameters, median age at first relevant episode was calculated. Income was analyzed using conditional logistic regression and the other parameters using Cox regression.


In comparison with controls, TS had significantly fewer partnerships (hazard ratio (HR): 0.45), fewer motherhoods (HR: 0.18), and retired earlier (HR: 1.8). After the diagnosis of TS, the risk of retiring was increased. Educational attainment (HR: 1.0) as well as risk of unemployment was similar. Before the age of 30, low income was significantly more frequent; hereafter, it was similar to controls. Mortality was significantly increased (HR: 2.9) and slightly lower after adjustment for cohabitation and education (HR: 2.7).


A divergent socioeconomic profile is apparent, with a reduced proportion of TS persons finding a partner and becoming mothers. The educational level was similar to controls. The increased mortality in TS was not materially affected after adjustment for cohabitation and education.

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Kirstine Stochholm, Claus Højbjerg Gravholt, Torben Laursen, Peter Laurberg, Marianne Andersen, Lars Østergaard Kristensen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Morten Frydenberg, and Anders Green

Objective: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD).

Design: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cutoff below or above 18 years at onset of GHD.

Method: Data on death were identified in national registries. Sex- and cause-specific mortalities were identified in CO and AO GHD when compared with controls.

Results: Mortality was increased in CO and AO GHD in both genders, when compared with controls. The hazard ratio (HR) for CO males was 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5–15.1) and for females 9.4 (CI 4.6–19.4). For AO males, HR was 1.9 (CI 1.7–2.2) and for females 3.4 (CI 2.9–4.0). We found a significantly higher HR in AO females versus AO males, both compared with controls (P < 0.001). In AO, mortality was increased due to cancer in all subgroups, due to circulatory diseases in all age groups for females and for males in the oldest age group. For CO, the increased mortality was due to cancer.

Conclusions: We found a significantly increased mortality in GHD patients when compared with controls, possibly due to their hypopituitary status. Mortality was increased in AO female patients when compared with males. For CO and AO GHD, different causes of significantly increased mortality were identified.

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Marianne Klose, Kirstine Stochholm, Jurgita Janukonyté, Louise Lehman Christensen, Arieh S Cohen, Aase Wagner, Peter Laurberg, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Marianne Andersen, and Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen


Posttraumatic pituitary hormone deficiency is often suggested. The impact of these predominantly mild and often irreproducible deficiencies on outcome is less clear. The aim of the present study was to describe patient reported outcome in a national a priori unselected cohort of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to deficiencies identified upon pituitary assessment.

Design and methods

We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were Danish patients with a head trauma diagnosis recorded in the Danish Board of Health diagnostic code registry; 439 patients (and 124 healthy controls) underwent assessment of anterior pituitary function 2.5 years (median) after TBI. Questionnaires on health-related quality of life (QoL) (SF36, EuroQoL-5D, QoL assessment of GH deficiency in adults) and fatigue (MFI-20) were completed in parallel to pituitary assessment.


Patients with TBI had significant detriments in QoL. Impairment (mainly physical scales) related to pituitary deficiency, although only partially confirmed after adjustment for demographic differences. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism related to several QoL scores. Increasing impairments were observed with declining total testosterone concentrations (men), but not free testosterone concentrations or any other hormone concentrations. Total testosterone was not independently related to impaired QoL and fatigue, after adjustment for demographics, and treatment with antidiabetics, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants.


Only a very limited relationship between pituitary hormone deficiencies and QoL/fatigue was demonstrated. Due to the dominating influence of concurrent comorbidities, pituitary deficiencies were not independently related to QoL/fatigue. Causality is still to be shown, and whether substitution therapy could be of additional relevance in selected patients needs to be proven.

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Kirstine Stochholm, Torben Laursen, Anders Green, Peter Laurberg, Marianne Andersen, Lars Østergaard Kristensen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Morten Frydenberg, and Claus Højbjerg Gravholt


To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD).


Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were identified in the National Patient Registry. Lag time until first admission was used as a measure of morbidity. Patients were divided into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cut-off of 18 years at onset of GHD.


Sex- and cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) in CO and AO GHD compared with controls.


Total morbidity was significantly increased in the GHD patients. HR for CO males: 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7–3.7), CO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.6–3.9), AO males: 2.9 (95% CI: 2.6–3.2), and AO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.8–3.6). In 18 out of 20 chapters from the International Classification of Diseases-10, a significantly increased morbidity was identified for at least one of the four subgroups of patients. Morbidity was significantly increased in all the four subgroups due to infectious, endocrine, pulmonary, urogenital, and neurological diseases; cancer; diseases of the eye, ear, and circulatory diseases; and traumas. Fractures were significantly increased in AO females, not in males.


Morbidity was significantly increased in the GHD patients. The increased morbidity was due to a variety of disorders, some of which can readily be explained by GHD and other pituitary deficiencies, while others cannot be easily explained.

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Kirstine Stochholm, Claus H Gravholt, Torben Laursen, Jens O Jørgensen, Peter Laurberg, Marianne Andersen, Lars Ø Kristensen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Jens S Christiansen, Morten Frydenberg, and Anders Green

Objective: Data on incidence rates are scarce in GH deficiency (GHD). Here, we estimate the incidence rate in childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO) GHD in Denmark.

Design: We used three national registries to identify 9131 cases with an increased risk of GHD. Date of entry was defined using the date when a registration had taken place and when a date of sufficient information could be defined from a thorough examination of a record of a GHD patient, which ever came last. We considered date of entry as the incident date.

Methods: Sex-specific incidence rates of GHD in children and adults using the background population as reference.

Results: During 1980–1999, 1823 patients were incident. Three-hundred and three males and 191 females had CO, 744 males and 585 females had AO GHD. The incidence rate over time was stable for females with AO GHD and increasing for the other three subgroups. Average incidence rate for CO males, 2.58 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.30–2.88), CO females, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.48–1.96), AO males, 1.90 (95% CI, 1.77–2.04), and AO females, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.31–1.54) all per 100 000. The incidence rate was significantly higher in males compared to females in the CO GHD group (P < 0.001) and in the AO GHD group in the age ranges of 45–64 and 65+years (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the 18–44 years age group.

Conclusions: In conclusion, we have identified the incidence rates of GHD in a nationwide study of Denmark. In this population-based study, we have identified in CO GHD and in the two oldest age groups of AO GHD, a statistically significant higher incidence rate in males when compared with females.

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Claus H Gravholt, Niels H Andersen, Gerard S Conway, Olaf M Dekkers, Mitchell E Geffner, Karen O Klein, Angela E Lin, Nelly Mauras, Charmian A Quigley, Karen Rubin, David E Sandberg, Theo C J Sas, Michael Silberbach, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Kirstine Stochholm, Janielle A van Alfen-van derVelden, Joachim Woelfle, Philippe F Backeljauw, and On behalf of the International Turner Syndrome Consensus Group

Turner syndrome affects 25–50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS. This paper is based on an international effort that started with exploratory meetings in 2014 in both Europe and the USA, and culminated with a Consensus Meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA in July 2016. Prior to this meeting, five groups each addressed important areas in TS care: 1) diagnostic and genetic issues, 2) growth and development during childhood and adolescence, 3) congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease, 4) transition and adult care, and 5) other comorbidities and neurocognitive issues. These groups produced proposals for the present guidelines. Additionally, four pertinent questions were submitted for formal GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) evaluation with a separate systematic review of the literature. These four questions related to the efficacy and most optimal treatment of short stature, infertility, hypertension, and hormonal replacement therapy. The guidelines project was initiated by the European Society of Endocrinology and the Pediatric Endocrine Society, in collaboration with the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the Endocrine Society, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, the American Heart Association, the Society for Endocrinology, and the European Society of Cardiology. The guideline has been formally endorsed by the European Society of Endocrinology, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the Endocrine Society. Advocacy groups appointed representatives who participated in pre-meeting discussions and in the consensus meeting.