Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Hyemi Kwon, Mijin Kim, Suyeon Park, Hye-Seon Oh, Minkyu Han, Tae-Yon Sung, Ki-Wook Chung, Suck Joon Hong, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong and Won Bae Kim
Active surveillance is an option for patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). However, the long-term clinical outcomes after delayed surgery remain unclear. We compared the long-term clinical outcomes of PTMC patients according to the time interval between initial diagnosis and surgery.
Design and methods
In this individual risk factor-matched cohort study, PTMC patients were classified into three groups according to the delay period: ≤6 months, 6–12 months and >12 months. Patients were matched by age, sex, extent of surgery, initial tumor size as measured by ultrasonography (US), and by the presence of extrathyroidal extension, multifocal tumors and central cervical lymph node metastasis. We compared the dynamic risk stratification (DRS) and the development of structural persistent/recurrent disease of patients.
A total of 2863 patients were assigned to three groups. Their mean age was 50 years, 81% were female and 66% underwent lobectomy. The mean tumor size at the initial US was 0.63 cm. There were no significant differences in clinicopathological characteristics between groups after individual risk factor matching. Comparison of the DRS revealed no significant difference according to the delay period (P = 0.07). During the median 4.8 years of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the development of structural recurrent/persistent disease (P = 0.34) and disease-free survival (P = 0.25) between groups.
In PTMC patients, delayed surgery was not associated with higher risk of structural recurrent/persistent disease compared to immediate surgery. These findings support the notion that surgical treatment can be safely delayed in patients with PTMC under close monitoring.
Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Woo Ri Park, Ji Min Han, Tae Yong Kim, Dong Eun Song, Ki-Wook Chung, Jin-Sook Ryu, Suck Joon Hong, Young Kee Shong and Won Bae Kim
A new risk stratification system was proposed to estimate the risk of recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) using the response to initial therapy. Here, we describe the modified dynamic risk stratification system, which takes into consideration the status of serum anti-Tg antibody (TgAb), and validate this system for assessing the risk of recurrence in patients with DTC.
Patients and methods
Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioiodine remnant ablation due to DTC between 2000 and 2005 were included. We classified patients into four groups based on the response to the initial therapy (‘excellent’, ‘acceptable’, ‘biochemical incomplete’, and ‘structural incomplete’ response).
The median follow-up period of 715 patients with DTC was 8 years. The response to initial therapy was an important risk predictor for recurrent/persistent DTC. The relative risks (95% CI) of recurrence were 16.5 (6.3–43.0) in the ‘acceptable response’ group, 41.3 (15.4–110.8) in the ‘biochemical incomplete response’ group, and 281.2 (112.9–700.5) in the ‘structural incomplete response’ group compared with the ‘excellent response’ group (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001 respectively). The disease-free survival rate of the ‘excellent response’ group to initial therapy was 98.3% whereas that of the ‘structural incomplete response’ group was only 6.8%.
Our study validates the usefulness of the modified dynamic risk stratification system including the status of serum TgAb for predicting recurrent/persistent disease in patients with DTC. Personalized risk assessment using the response to initial therapy could be useful for the follow-up and management of patients with DTC.
Eyun Song, Min Ji Jeon, Hye-Seon Oh, Minkyu Han, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae Yong Kim, Ki-Wook Chung, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Dong Eun Song and Won Gu Kim
Evidence for unfavorable outcomes of each type of aggressive variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (AV-PTC) is not clear because most previous studies are focused on tall cell variant (TCV) and did not control for other major confounding factors contributing to clinical outcomes.
Retrospective cohort study.
This study included 763 patients with classical PTC (cPTC) and 144 with AV-PTC, including TCV, columnar cell variant (CCV) and hobnail variants. Disease-free survival (DFS) and dynamic risk stratification (DRS) were compared after two-to-one propensity score matching by age, sex, tumor size, lymph node metastasis and extrathyroidal extension.
The AV-PTC group had significantly lower DFS rates than its matched cPTC group (HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.12–4.16, P = 0.018). When TCV and CCV were evaluated separately, there was no significant differences in DFS and DRS between patients with TCV (n = 121) and matched cPTC. However, CCV group (n = 18) had significantly poorer DFS than matched cPTC group (HR = 12.19, 95% CI: 2.11–70.33, P = 0.005). In DRS, there were significantly more patients with structural incomplete responses in CCV group compared by matched cPTC group (P = 0.047). CCV was an independent risk factor for structural persistent/recurrent disease in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.28; 95% CI: 1.66–11.00, P = 0.001).
When other clinicopathological factors were similar, patients with TCV did not exhibit unfavorable clinical outcome, whereas those with CCV had significantly poorer clinical outcome. Individualized therapeutic approach might be necessary for each type of AV-PTCs.
Hye Jeong Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Hyeong Kyu Park, Dong Won Byun, Kyoil Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Jee Jae Hwan, Jae Hyeon Kim, Yong-Ki Min, Sun Wook Kim and Jae Hoon Chung
Several cross-sectional studies have reported that thyroid hormone levels are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) even in euthyroid subjects. However, the prognostic role of serum thyroid hormone levels in the risk of incident MetS has not been elucidated.
We aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum thyroid hormone levels with the development of MetS in healthy subjects.
This 6-year, cross-sectional, longitudinal and follow-up study was conducted in 12 037 euthyroid middle-aged subjects without MetS subjected to comprehensive health examinations. Subjects were grouped according to total triiodothyronine (T3) quartiles. The hazard ratio (HR) for the development of MetS according to T3 quartiles was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model.
During the 6-year period, 3544 incident cases of MetS (29%) were identified. The proportion of subjects with incident MetS increased across the T3 quartiles (P for trend <0.001). The HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the development of MetS were significantly higher in the highest T3 quartile compared with the lowest T3 quartile even after adjusting for confounding variables including gender, age and smoking (HR: 1.238, 95% CI: 1.128–1.358, P < 0.001).
In euthyroid middle-aged subjects, serum T3 levels are associated with increased risk for future development of MetS.