Katarina Berinder, Olof Akre, Fredrik Granath and Anna-Lena Hulting
Experimental evidence indicates that prolactin might play a role in tumorigenesis of several human cancers, but data on cancer risk in hyperprolactinemia patients are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk in hyperprolactinemia patients.
A population-based matched cohort study in Sweden.
The hyperprolactinemia cohort consisted of patients hospitalized for hyperprolactinemia from 1987 to 1995 identified in the National Patient Register (n=585) and a hospital cohort of prolactinoma patients at Karolinska University Hospital (n=384). For each patient, ten matched individuals were identified via the Register of Population. Cancer occurrence was ascertained via the Swedish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression.
Seventy-three malignant tumors were identified in the hyperprolactinemia patients and 660 tumors in the comparison group (HR 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.68), mainly attributed to an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer in both males and females (HR 3.69; 95% CI: 1.70–8.03) and hematopoietic cancer in females (HR 3.51; 95% CI: 1.06–11.6). Twelve breast cancers occurred in the female patients, corresponding to an HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 0.60–1.99). Prostate cancer risk in hyperprolactinemia men was reduced (HR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.16–0.99).
An increased overall cancer risk was found in hyperprolactinemia patients, but no increased risk of breast cancer in women and a reduced risk of prostate cancer in men. These findings warrant further investigations and to be confirmed in larger studies but may indicate the importance of an active treatment strategy and follow-up of hyperprolactinemia patients.
Ann McCormack, Olaf M Dekkers, Stephan Petersenn, Vera Popovic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Gerald Raverot, Pia Burman and ESE survey collaborators
To collect outcome data in a large cohort of patients with aggressive pituitary tumours (APT)/carcinomas (PC) and specifically report effects of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment.
Electronic survey to ESE members Dec 2015–Nov 2016.
Reports on 166 patients (40 PC, 125 APT, 1 unclassified) were obtained. Median age at diagnosis was 43 (range 4–79) years. 69% of the tumours were clinically functioning, and the most frequent immunohistochemical subtype were corticotroph tumours (45%). Ki-67 index did not distinguish APT from PC, median 7% and 10% respectively. TMZ was first-line chemotherapy in 157 patients. At the end of the treatment (median 9 cycles), radiological evaluation showed complete response (CR) in 6%, partial response (PR) in 31%, stable disease (SD) in 33% and progressive disease in 30%. Response was more frequent in patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy and TMZ. CR was seen only in patients with low MGMT expression. Clinically functioning tumours were more likely to respond than non-functioning tumours, independent of MGMT status. Of patients with CR, PR and SD, 25, 40 and 48% respectively progressed after a median of 12-month follow-up. Other oncological drugs given as primary treatment and to TMZ failures resulted in PR in 20%.
This survey confirms that TMZ is established as first-line chemotherapeutic treatment of APT/PC. Clinically functioning tumours, low MGMT and concurrent radiotherapy were associated with a better response. The limited long-term effect of TMZ and the poor efficacy of other drugs highlight the need to identify additional effective therapies.