OBJECTIVE: Most patients with acromegaly require additional treatments after trans-sphenoidal surgery. Although traditional methods of treatment aim at suppressing GH hypersecretion from the pituitary tumor, recent studies on the use of the GH receptor antagonist have shown that targeting the action of GH on peripheral tissues may be more effective. Estrogens and the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen have been used previously to suppress circulating IGF-I levels in patients with acromegaly. Positive effects of raloxifene in women with active acromegaly have been reported recently. This study was designed to examine the potential role of raloxifene in the treatment of acromegaly in male patients. DESIGN: We studied eight men with active acromegaly despite the fact that they were receiving traditional treatments. All subjects were treated with raloxifene (60 mg twice a day) for a median of 5 weeks. METHODS: The effects of raloxifene on GH secretion were assessed by obtaining 24-h GH profiles and studying the response of GH to various stimuli before and after treatment with raloxifene. Serum IGF-I was measured before and after raloxifene treatment. RESULTS: Raloxifene did not affect basal GH secretion or response of GH to TRH, GHRH or glucose, but it decreased circulating IGF-I by 16+/-4% (P=0.001), and normalized plasma IGF-I in two patients. No changes in clinical parameters were observed. Prolactin levels, the prolactin response to TRH and free testosterone levels remained unchanged. Raloxifene was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Raloxifene might be useful in the treatment of male patients with active acromegaly, but longer term studies are clearly needed.
EV Dimaraki, KV Symons and AL Barkan
SK Jessup, BA Malow, KV Symons and AL Barkan
OBJECTIVES: A temporal association between non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 3 and 4 and nocturnal augmentation of GH release was found long ago, yet the precise mechanism for this association has not been identified. It has been shown, however that pulsatile GHRH administration increases both slow-wave sleep (SWS) and GH. Based on these data, a role for GHRH as an inducer of SWS was proposed. To test this hypothesis, we have performed the corollary experiment whereby the action of endogenous GHRH has been antagonized. DESIGN: Healthy men (20-33 years old) had an infusion of GHRH antagonist ((N-Ac-Tyr(1), D-Arg(2)) GHRH-29 (NH(2))) or saline for a 12-h period, between 2100 and 0900 h. An i.v. bolus of GHRH was given at 0700 h and GH samples were drawn from 0700 to 0900 h to document the efficacy of GH suppression by the GHRH antagonist. METHODS: A limited montage sleep study was recorded from 2300 to 0700 h during each admission. Plasma GH concentrations were analyzed by the use of a sensitive chemiluminometric assay. RESULTS: Effectiveness of the GHRH antagonist was validated in all subjects by demonstrating 93+/-1.8% (P=0.012) suppression of GH response to a GHRH bolus. Polysomnography demonstrated that the percentage of SWS was not different when saline and GHRH antagonist nights were compared (P=0.607); other quantifiable sleep parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that endogenous GHRH is indispensable for the nocturnal augmentation of GH secretion, but that it is unlikely to participate in the genesis of SWS.