Testes of adult, male rats were exposed to a total dose of 1500 R of X-irradiation. Testicular weight decreased from day 8 after X-ray treatment. This decrease was, however, preceded by an increment of the testis weight on day 4 following treatment. X-ray treatment of testes was associated with significant increases in serum FSH. Testicular irradiation had, however, no effect on ventral prostate and seminal vesicles weights. Serum testosterone increased only on day 1, 2 and 4 after irradiation, while serum LH levels tended to increase from day 8 post-irradiation. These changes were not significant, however, when compared with non-irradiated controls. At 7, 13 and 20 days following 1500 R of bilateral, testicular X-irradiation, the hypothalamic-pituitary unit was still capable of responding to exogenous gonadotrophin releasing factor. Serum FSH may in male rats be regulated at least partly by circulating steroids of testicular origin and partly by an unknown factor of non-interstitial cell nature.