DESIGN: It has recently been shown that deficiency of adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide, leads to insulin resistance. We studied expression of AM in NIH 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it with expression of resistin, an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone that is proposed to cause insulin resistance. Moreover, we studied the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a known mediator of insulin resistance, on the expression of AM and resistin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. METHODS: 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate to adipocytes by insulin, dexamethasone and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Expression of AM mRNA and resistin mRNA was examined by Northern blot analysis. Immunoreactive AM in the medium was measured by RIA. RESULTS: AM mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes, but barely detectable in adipocytes. Immunoreactive AM was detected in the medium of both preadipocytes and adipocytes, with about 2.5 times higher levels found in preadipocytes. In contrast, resistin mRNA was expressed in adipocytes, whereas it was not detected in preadipocytes. Treatment with TNF-alpha increased AM expression in both adipocytes and preadipocytes, whereas it decreased resistin mRNA levels in adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has shown that AM expression was down-regulated and resistin expression was up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. TNF-alpha acted as a potent negative regulator of resistin expression and a potent positive regulator of AM expression in adipocytes, raising the possibility that in addition to its known actions in causing insulin resistance, TNF-alpha may also have actions against insulin resistance through AM and resistin.
Y Li, K Totsune, K Takeda, K Furuyama, S Shibahara and K Takahashi
Y Furuhata, K Hirabayashi, T Yonezawa, M Takahashi and M Nishihara
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that GH-deficient subjects tend to have fat accumulation. We have produced human GH (hGH) transgenic rats that exhibit low circulating hGH levels and hyperphagia. These rats are also characterized by severe obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted in order to elucidate how excess caloric intake and impaired GH secretion account for fat accumulation and metabolic abnormalities in the transgenic rats. DESIGN AND METHODS: The transgenic rats were subjected to either pair-feeding with non-transgenic controls or hGH treatment from 4 to 12 weeks of age, and the effects on fat accumulation and some metabolic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: At the age of 12 weeks, body weight and food intake were greater in transgenic than in control rats by 10% and 27% respectively. The ratio of epididymal white adipose tissue weight to body weight (WAT/BW) was more than three times greater in transgenic than in control rats. Although pair-feeding for 8 weeks decreased body weight, it did not affect the WAT/BW ratio. Treatment with hGH affected neither body weight nor food intake, while it reduced the WAT/BW ratio by 30%. Serum concentrations of triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin and leptin were all significantly higher in the transgenic than in the control rats. Pair-feeding decreased serum triglyceride, insulin and leptin levels, but not serum free fatty acid levels. On the other hand, hGH treatment decreased only serum leptin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that severe fat accumulation in the transgenic rats mainly resulted from the decreased lipolytic action of GH, while metabolic abnormalities mainly resulted from excess caloric intake.
K Takahashi, H Kurioka, T Ozaki, H Kanasaki, K Miyazaki and K Karino
OBJECTIVE: To assess the LH response of the pituitary gland to GnRH stimulation in healthy women with a mutant beta-subunit (Trp8 to Arg8 and Ile15 to Thr15). DESIGN: Clinical study. PATIENTS: We studied 40 healthy non-pregnant Japanese women of known zygosity for the LH beta-subunit gene (3 homozygotes for the mutant gene, 17 heterozygotes, and 20 homozygotes for the wild type). All women had normal ovulatory cycles. MEASUREMENTS: Serum LH status was determined by comparing LH immunoassays results using a monoclonal antibody recognizing only wild-type LH with those from a polyclonal antibody assay recognizing both variant and wild-type LH. The ratio of monoclonal to polyclonal immunoassay results determined the serum LH status. LH secretion in response to a GnRH stimulation test was measured. RESULTS: All women with the wild-type LH showed a normal response of LH to GnRH according to both assays. Over the time course of the response, the ratios in women with wild-type LH showed no remarkable changes. The response curves in women heterozygous for the mutant peaked 15-30min after GnRH injection; their response patterns included a statistically significant decrease in the rates of response at 15min after injection. CONCLUSIONS: There are the differences in circulatory kinetics between the two LH forms and in regulation of the two types of LHbeta genes. The maximal response of the variant LH to pituitary stimulation with GnRH appears to be greater than that of wild-type LH.
H Kurioka, K Takahashi, M Irikoma, M Okada, T Ozaki, T Ueda and K Miyazaki
We initially failed to confirm a case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) because underestimation of LH concentrations due to a variant form of this hormone resulted in a misleadingly low LH/FSH ratio. A 26-year-old woman presented to our hospital with infertility. Given the presence of bilateral polycystic ovaries, oligomenorrhea and hirsutism. PCOS was suspected, but a normal LH/FSH ratio as measured by RIA led to diagnostic problems. When we remeasured LH and FSH using a chemical luminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), the ratio of the LH concentration measured by RIA to that measured by CLEIA was 0.29, and the ratio of LH to FSH measured by CLEIA was 3.3 compared with 0.81 measured by RIA. We then diagnosed PCOS. The point mutations Trp8 to Arg8 and Ile15 to Thr15 in the LH subunit were detected in the corresponding gene. The patient's LH status represented variant and wild-type LH equally. She was therefore diagnosed as heterozygous for the mutant LH-beta. Histologic assessment of ovarian tissue after laparoscopic biopsy was compatible with a polycystic ovary.
O Murakami, K Takahashi, F Satoh, K Totsune, M Sone, Z Arihara, N Andoh and T Mouri
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of adrenomedullin, a potent vasodilator peptide originally isolated from a pheochromocytoma, in ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors. METHODS: Tumor tissue concentrations of adrenomedullin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, endothelin-1, corticotropin-releasing hormone and ACTH were measured in three ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors by RIA. The expression of adrenomedullin mRNA was examined by northern blot analysis of tissue from one of the tumors. RESULTS: Immunoreactive adrenomedullin was detected in tumor tissues of three ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors (0.60-18.5 pmol/g wet weight). Calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, endothelin-1 and corticotropin-releasing hormone were also detected in the tumor tissues. The tumor tissue concentrations of immunoreactive adrenomedullin were comparable to those of these four peptides, but much lower than those of ACTH. Northern blot analysis showed the expression of adrenomedullin mRNA in one tumor from which sufficient tissue was available for such study. The plasma concentration of immunoreactive adrenomedullin was increased in one patient (41.3 pmol/l, control 13.5 +/- 3.6 pmol/l, mean +/- S.D., n = 12). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that adrenomedullin is produced by ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors, together with other neuropeptides, and raise the possibility that adrenomedullin is related to the pathophysiology of these tumors.
Y Furuhata, R Kagaya, K Hirabayashi, A Ikeda, KT Chang, M Nishihara and M Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Human growth hormone (hGH) transgenic (TG) rats have been produced in our laboratory. These TG rats are characterized by low circulating hGH levels, virtually no endogenous rGH secretion, and massive obesity. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate how energy balance and leptin sensitivity contributed to the establishment of this obesity. DESIGN AND METHODS: Food intake, locomotor activity and leptin concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were measured in TG rats and their non-transgenic littermates (control). The effect of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injection of leptin on food intake and body weight gain was also examined. RESULTS: An increase in food intake and a decrease in locomotor activity were observed from 4 and 7 weeks of age, respectively, in the transgenic rats compared with control. Serum leptin concentrations of the transgenic rats were more than twice as high as those of control rats and were associated with an increased white adipose tissue mass and ob gene expression. Intraperitoneal injection of leptin significantly decreased food intake and body weight gain in control rats, but not in transgenic rats. Leptin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of transgenic rats was not different from that of control rats, and intracerebroventricular injection of leptin was similarly effective in reducing food intake and body weight gain as it was in control rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the transgenic rats, whose GH secretion is suppressed, develop obesity due to early onset of an increase in food intake and a decrease in locomotor activity with leptin resistance resulting from deteriorating leptin transport from peripheral blood to cerebrospinal fluid.
K Tsukiyama, Y Yamada, K Miyawaki, A Hamasaki, K Nagashima, M Hosokawa, S Fujimoto, A Takahashi, K Toyoda, S Toyokuni, Y Oiso and Y Seino
OBJECTIVE: ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in pancreatic beta-cells are crucial in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Recently, K(ATP) channel-deficient mice were generated by genetic disruption of Kir6.2, the pore-forming component of K(ATP) channels, but the mice still showed a significant insulin response after oral glucose loading in vivo. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a physiological incretin that stimulates insulin release upon ingestion of nutrients. To determine if GIP is the insulinotropic factor in insulin secretion in K(ATP) channel-deficient mice, we generated double-knockout Kir6.2 and GIP receptor null mice and compared them with Kir6.2 knockout mice. METHODS: Double-knockout mice were generated by intercrossing Kir6.2-knockout mice with GIP receptor-knockout mice. An oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and batch incubation study of pancreatic islets were performed on double-knockout mice and Kir6.2-knockout mice. RESULTS: Fasting glucose and insulin levels were similar in both groups. After oral glucose loading, blood glucose levels of double-knockout mice became elevated compared with Kir6.2-knockout mice, especially at 15 min (345+/-10 mg/dl vs 294+/-20 mg/dl, P<0.05) and 30 min (453+/-20 mg/dl vs 381+/-26 mg/dl, P<0.05). The insulin response was almost completely lost in double-knockout mice, although insulin secretion from isolated islets was stimulated by another incretin, glucagon-like peptide-1 in the double-knockout mice. Double-knockout mice and Kir6.2-knockout mice were similarly insulin sensitive as assessed by the insulin tolerance test. CONCLUSION: GIP is the major insulinotropic factor in the secretion of insulin in response to glucose load in K(ATP) channel-deficient mice.
R Takeno, Y Okimura, G Iguchi, M Kishimoto, T Kudo, K Takahashi, Y Takahashi, H Kaji, M Ohno, H Ikuta, Y Kuroda, T Obara, H Hosoda, K Kangawa and K Chihara
OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is a potent peptide stimulating GH secretion. Besides its direct action on the pituitary, ghrelin has been reported to stimulate GH release via the vagal afferent nerve in rats. To examine the involvement of vagal nerve in ghrelin-induced GH secretion in humans, GH responses to ghrelin were compared between vagotomized patients with gastrectomy and normal subjects. METHODS: Ghrelin (0.2 microg/kg) or GHRH (1 microg/kg) was administered intravenously in vagotomized patients and normal subjects on separate days, and plasma GH responses to the stimuli were examined. RESULTS: Ghrelin caused a significant plasma GH rise in both vagotomized patients and normal subjects. Peak GH levels in vagotomized patients (37.5+/-16.9 ng/ml) were not different from those in normal subjects (29.9+/-23.1 ng/ml). The areas under the curve of GH response to ghrelin did not differ between the two groups. GHRH also increased GH levels, and peak GH levels and areas under the curve after GHRH stimulation were also comparable between vagotomized patients and normal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, the involvement of the afferent vagal nerve in ghrelin-induced GH secretion was not confirmed in humans.