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K Raile, H Stobbe, R B Tröbs, W Kiess and R Pfäffle

Blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES), an autosomal dominant syndrome in which eyelid malformation is associated with (type I BPES) or without premature ovarian failure (type II BPES). Mutations of a putative winged helix/forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 account for both types of BPES. We report on a 16-year-old adolescent girl with blepharophimosis and ptosis. Subsequently she developed oligomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea for 6 months, and an extremely large cyst of one ovary. The cyst contained 8 l of cyst fluid and histopathology displayed a large corpus luteum cyst. Following laparotomy, gonadotropin levels were elevated (LH 17.2 U/l, FSH 29.4 U/l) and estradiol levels decreased (67 pmol/l). Because of clinical aspects of BPES and abnormal ovarian function we suspected a mutation of her FOXL2 gene and found a new in-frame mutation (904_939dup36) on one allele, leading to a 12 alanine expansion within the polyalanine domain. We conclude that the FOXL2 mutation 904_939dup36 may account not only for blepharophimosis and ptosis but also for ovarian dysfunction and growth of the large corpus luteum cyst. In contrast to known FOXL2 mutations with polyalanine expansions and association with BPES type II, clinical aspects of our girl may indicate some degree of ovarian dysfunction that might finally lead to BPES type I with premature ovarian failure.

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J Kratzsch, I Knerr, A Galler, T Kapellen, K Raile, A Körner, J Thiery, J Dötsch and W Kiess

Objective: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) leads to increased serum levels of the soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) by an as yet unknown cellular mechanism. The aim of our study was to investigate potential metabolic factors that may be associated with the induction of the sOB-R release from its membrane receptor.

Materials and methods: Twenty-five children (aged between 1.5 and 17.0 years) were studied at the onset of T1DM. Blood samples were collected before (n = 25), during the first 18 h (mean ± S.D. 11.1 ± 4.3 h, n = 16) and 92 h (47.5 ± 22.5 h; n = 14) after beginning insulin therapy. Serum sOB-R and leptin levels were determined by in-house immunoassays.

Results: The sOBR-level and the molar sOB-R/leptin ratio were significantly higher before than after starting insulin treatment (P < 0.05). In contrast, leptin levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) before insulin therapy. The correlation between sOB-R and blood glucose (r = 0.49; P < 0.05), as well as sOB-R with parameters of ketoacidosis, such as pH (r = −0.72), base excess (r = −0.70), and bicarbonate (r = −0.69) (P < 0.0001) at diagnosis of T1DM remained significant during the first 18 h of insulin treatment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that base excess predicted 41.0% (P < 0.001), age 16.4% (P < 0.05), and height SDS 13.9% (P < 0.01) of the sOB-R variance.

Conclusions: Metabolic decompensation in children with new onset T1DM is associated with dramatic changes of the leptin axis; serum levels of sOB-R are elevated and of leptin are reduced. The molar excess of sOB-R over leptin (median 11.3) in this condition may contribute to leptin insensitivity. Upregulation of the soluble leptin receptor appears to be a basic mechanism to compensate for intracellular substrate deficiency and energy-deprivation state.

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Tilman Rohrer, Eva Stierkorb, Sabine Heger, Beate Karges, Klemens Raile, K Otfried Schwab, Reinhard W Holl and on behalf of the Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdaten (DPV) Initiative

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W L Awa, A Thon, K Raile, J Grulich-Henn, T Meissner, E Schober, R W Holl and the DPV-Wiss. Study Group


To determine prevalence, genetic and phenotype characteristics of patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF1A) variants in the Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumenation (DPV) multicentre database and to examine the influence of HNF1A mutation type, or location on clinical phenotypes.

Patients and methods

Seventy-one DPV patients were labelled as HNF1A-MODY (MODY3). Forty-four patients carried HNF1A mutations, while 27 patients were found to have HNF1A polymorphisms only. Associations between mutation type/position and age at disease onset, HbAlc, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, family history and treatment modality were analysed using non-parametric statistics (Wilcoxon test).


Patients with HNF1A mutations were 36% male, aged 14.1±5.8 years at diagnosis, and slightly overweight (BMI-SDS: +0.8±1.1). Treatment was lifestyle intervention (20.5%), insulin (35.3%), oral anti-diabetic (OAD, 43%) and both insulin+OAD (15.9%). More patients with missense mutations (60%) than patients with nonsense mutations/frameshift (23.8%) did not use insulin (P=0.03). No differences were found with regard to mutation types, isoform or domain.

We identified several previously undescribed mutations in the cohort including c.-158insGGGTTGG in the promoter region, G31X, E41X, Q130X, L162P, R245I, A269P, S355X, Q398X, Q473X, Q495X, E508X, P588fs-insGCCA and P588fs-delAC. Patients carrying HNF1A polymorphisms were significantly younger at diagnosis than patients with HNF1A mutations (10.9±4.2 vs 14.19±5.8 years; P=0.027), and all carried I27L, S487N and A98V (n=3).


HNF1A-MODY is the second most frequent MODY diagnosis registered in the DPV database, and previously undescribed HNF1A mutations account for about one-third of HNF1A-MODY cases. Patients with HNF1A polymorphisms documented as HNF1A-MODY were misclassified. They may have autoantibody-negative type 1B or type 2 diabetes or may have other MODY types.

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Tilman Rohrer, Eva Stierkorb, Sabine Heger, Beate Karges, Klemens Raile, K Otfried Schwab, Reinhard W Holl and on behalf of the Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdaten (DPV) Initiative



To investigate the effect of type 1 diabetes on pubertal onset and development, and to identify factors potentially affecting puberty, including glycemic control, relative diabetes duration, body mass index standard delta score (BMI SDS), insulin dose, and intensity of insulin therapy.

Research design and methods

Initiated in 1990, the Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdaten (DPV) is an ongoing, prospective longitudinal follow-up program to benchmark the quality of diabetes care provided to, predominantly, pediatric patients. Data collection for this non-interventional audit was carried out at 202 German diabetes treatment centers. Patient recruitment was done by referral, clinic/hospital ascertainment, or self-report. Data were analyzed for subcohorts of 1218–2409 boys and 579–2640 girls from a cohort of 24 385 pediatric type 1 diabetic patients. Selection was based on ethnicity and availability of data on Tanner stage 2, or higher, of genital and pubic hair development (boys) or breast and pubic hair development, and menarche (girls).


Boys showed significant (P<0.05) delay (years) in mean ages at onset of genital development (12.0 (±0.9) years) and pubarche (12.2 (±0.4) years). In girls, mean ages at thelarche (11.4 (±0.5) years), pubarche (11.5 (±0.1) years), and menarche (13.2 (±0.5) years) were significantly delayed compared with the general population. Sexual maturity (Tanner stage 5) was not delayed in either sex. Elevated glycohemoglobin and decreased BMI SDS were associated with significantly delayed pubertal onset, whereas relative diabetes duration and insulin dose were not.


Pubertal onset, but not sexual maturity, is delayed in children with type 1 diabetes. Delay increases with higher glycohemoglobin and lower BMI SDS.