OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin secretion and sensitivity in affected (diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance; n=7) and in unaffected (normal glucose tolerance; n=3) carriers of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (maturity-onset diabetes of the young-3 (MODY3)) gene mutations. METHODS: Insulin secretion was assessed by an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), hyperglycemic clamp and arginine test, and insulin sensitivity by an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results were compared with those of diabetic MODY2 (glucokinase-deficient) and control subjects. RESULTS: The amount of insulin secreted during an IVGTT was decreased in affected MODY3 subjects (46+/-24 (s.d.) pmol/kg body weight (BW)) as compared with values in MODY2 (120+/-49pmol/kg BW) and control (173+/-37pmol/kg BW; P=0.0004) subjects. The amount of insulin secreted during a 10mmol/l glucose clamp was decreased in affected MODY3 subjects (171+/-78pmol/kg BW) and MODY2 subjects (302+/-104pmol/kg BW) as compared with control subjects (770+/-199pmol/kg BW; P=0.0001). Insulin secretion in response to arginine was decreased in affected MODY3 subjects. Milder and heterogeneous defects were observed in the unaffected MODY3 subjects; the amount of insulin secreted during the hyperglycemic clamp was 40-79% of that of controls. The response to arginine was abnormally delayed. Insulin sensitivity was decreased in diabetic but not in non-diabetic MODY3 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-cell dysfunction in response to glucose and arginine is observed in affected and unaffected MODY3 subjects. The MODY3 and MODY2 subtypes present different insulin secretion profiles. Secondary insulin resistance might contribute to the chronic hyperglycemia of MODY3 patients and modulate their glucose tolerance.
M Vaxillaire, ME Pueyo, K Clement, J Fiet, J Timsit, J Philippe, JJ Robert, L Tappy, P Froguel and G Velho
M J Kim, M Maachi, C Debard, E Loizon, K Clément, E Bruckert, B Hainque, J Capeau, H Vidal and J P Bastard
Objective: To investigate the mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, the two recently cloned adiponectin receptors and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ2 in adipose tissue of obese individuals before and during a very low calorie diet (VLCD) inducing weight loss.
Methods: Twenty-three non-diabetic obese subjects with normal (NGT, n=11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=12) (age, 47±3 years; body mass index, 39.3±1.3 kg/m2) were studied before and after a 3-week 3.9 MJ diet daily without exercise. mRNA levels of nine IGT and six NGT subjects were measured by real-time PCR in s.c. abdominal adipose tissue.
Results: Metabolic parameters and insulin sensitivity were improved by VLCD in the IGT group, but minimally affected in the NGT group. VLCD increased expression of AdipoR1 in the IGT (P=0.02), but not in the NGT group. Adiponectin, AdipoR2 and PPARγ2 mRNA levels did not change during VLCD in any group. In the IGT, but not in the NGT group, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expressions were positively related to that of PPARγ2 and, after VLCD, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expressions were positively related to each other and to that of adiponectin.
Conclusion: In the NGT group, the 3-week VLCD inducing weight loss did not modify metabolic parameters, insulin sensitivity and the expression of the adiponectin system in adipose tissue. By contrast, in the IGT group, AdipoR1 expression increased and we found a coordinate regulation of the expression of adiponectin and its receptors. These modifications could participate, through adiponectin action on adipocytes, to the improved metabolic parameters observed in IGT subjects.