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Free access

Marloes Nies, Eus G J M Arts, Evert F S van Velsen, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Anneke C Muller Kobold, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Robin P Peeters, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Astrid E P Cantineau, and Thera P Links


Whilst radioactive iodine (RAI) is often administered in the treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), long-term data on male fertility after RAI are scarce.


To evaluate long-term male fertility after RAI for DTC, and to compare semen quality before and after RAI.

Design, setting, and patients

Multicenter study including males with DTC ≥2 years after their final RAI treatment with a cumulative activity of ≥3.7 GBq.

Main outcome measure(s)

Semen analysis, hormonal evaluation, and a fertility-focused questionnaire. Cut-off scores for ‘low semen quality’ were based on reference values of the general population as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO).


Fifty-one participants had a median age of 40.5 (interquartile range (IQR): 34.0–49.6) years upon evaluation and a median follow-up of 5.8 (IQR: 3.0–9.5) years after their last RAI administration. The median cumulative administered activity of RAI was 7.4 (range: 3.7–23.3) GBq. The proportion of males with a low semen volume, concentration, progressive motility, or total motile sperm count did not differ from the 10th percentile cut-off of a general population (P = 0.500, P = 0.131, P = 0.094, and P = 0.500, respectively). Cryopreserved semen was used by 1 participant of the 20 who had preserved semen.


Participants had a normal long-term semen quality. The proportion of participants with low semen quality parameters scoring below the 10th percentile did not differ from the general population. Cryopreservation of semen of males with DTC is not crucial for conceiving a child after RAI administration but may be considered in individual cases.

Open access

Marloes Nies, Bernadette L Dekker, Esther Sulkers, Gea A Huizinga, Mariëlle S Klein Hesselink, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Martha A Grootenhuis, Adrienne H Brouwers, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Eveline W C M van Dam, Bas Havekes, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Leontien C M Kremer, Romana T Netea-Maier, Heleen J H van der Pal, Robin P Peeters, John T M Plukker, Cécile M Ronckers, Hanneke M van Santen, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Wim J E Tissing, Gianni Bocca, and Thera P Links


The impact of childhood differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on psychosocial development has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the achievement of psychosocial developmental milestones in long-term survivors of childhood DTC.

Design and methods

Survivors of childhood DTC diagnosed between 1970 and 2013 were included. Reasons for exclusion were age <18 or >35 years at follow-up, a follow-up period <5 years or diagnosis with DTC as a second malignant neoplasm. Survivors gathered peer controls of similar age and sex (n = 30). A comparison group non-affected with cancer (n = 508) and other childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were also used to compare psychosocial development. To assess the achievement of psychosocial milestones (social, autonomy and psychosexual development), the course of life questionnaire (CoLQ) was used.


We included 39 survivors of childhood DTC (response rate 83.0%, mean age at diagnosis 15.6 years, and mean age at evaluation 26.1 years). CoLQ scores did not significantly differ between survivors of childhood DTC and the two non-affected groups. CoLQ scores of childhood DTC survivors were compared to scores of other CCS diagnosed at similar ages (n = 76). DTC survivors scored significantly higher on social development than other CCS, but scores were similar on autonomy and psychosexual developmental scales.


Survivors of childhood DTC showed similar development on social, autonomy, and psychosexual domains compared to non-affected individuals. Social development was slightly more favorable in DTC survivors than in other CCS, but was similar on autonomy and psychosexual domains.

Restricted access

Antoinette D Reichert, Marloes Nies, Wim J E Tissing, Anneke C Muller Kobold, Mariëlle S Klein Hesselink, Adrienne H Brouwers, Bas Havekes, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Helena J H van der Pal, John T M Plukker, Hanneke M van Santen, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Robin P Peeters, Eveline W C M van Dam, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Peter van der Meer, Gianni Bocca, and Thera P Links


Pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has an excellent prognosis but unknown late effects of treatment. The initial cardiac evaluation showed subclinical diastolic dysfunction in 20% of adult survivors. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine the clinical course of this finding.


This multicenter study, conducted between 2018 and 2020, re-evaluated survivors after 5 years. The primary endpoint was echocardiographic diastolic cardiac function (depicted by the mean of the early diastolic septal and early diastolic lateral tissue velocity (e’ mean)). Secondary endpoints were other echocardiographic parameters and plasma biomarkers.


Follow-up evaluation was completed in 47 (71.2%) of 66 survivors who had completed their initial evaluation. Of these 47 survivors, 87.2% were women. The median age was 39.8 years (range: 18.8–60.3), and the median follow-up after the initial diagnosis was 23.4 years (range: 10.2–48.8). Between the first and second evaluation, the e’ mean significantly decreased by 2.1 cm/s (s.d. 2.3 cm/s, P < 0.001). The median left ventricular ejection fraction did not significantly change (58.0% vs 59.0%, P= NS). In the best explanatory model of e’ mean, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that BMI and age were significantly associated with e’ mean (β coefficient: −0.169, 95% CI: −0.292; −0.047, P = 0.008 and β coefficient: −0.177, 95% CI: −0.240; −0.113, P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions and relevance

In these relatively young survivors of pediatric DTC, diastolic function decreased significantly during 5-year follow-up and is possibly more pronounced than in normal aging. This finding requires further follow-up to assess clinical consequences.