Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 23 items for

  • Author: Jens Otto Jørgensen x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Jens Sandahl Christiansen and Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen

Abstract.

Growth hormone deficiency in adults is associated with psychosocial maladjustment, reduced muscle strength, and reduced exercise capacity. Body composition is significantly altered, with increased fat and decreased muscle volume as compared with healthy subjects. Kidney function is subnormal. Epidemiological data suggest premature mortality owing to cardiovascular disease in hypopituitary patients. Short-term GH treatment trials have shown improved psychosocial performance, normalization of body composition, increased muscle strength, improved exercise capacity, increased cardiac performance, and normalization of kidney function. Thus GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient adults exhibits potential long-term beneficial effects. A number of important questions have to be addressed before long-term GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient adults can be considered on a routine basis.

Free access

Jens J Christiansen, Jens M Bruun, Jens S Christiansen, Jens Otto Jørgensen and Claus H Gravholt

Context

Adrenal derived androgens are low in women with adrenal failure. The physiological consequences of substitution therapy are uncertain.

Objective

To investigate the effects of DHEA substitution in women with adrenal failure on body composition, fuel metabolism, and inflammatory markers.

Design, participants and intervention

In this study, ten female patients (median age 38.5 years, range 28–52) with adrenal failure were treated with DHEA 50 mg for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover study. The participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, computed tomography scan of abdominal fat, indirect calorimetry, bicycle ergometry, muscle and fat biopsies, and blood samples.

Results

Baseline androgens were normalized to fertile range during active treatment. Anthropometric data were unaffected, but lean body mass (LBM) slightly increased compared with placebo (delta LBM (kg) placebo versus DHEA: −0.48±6.1 vs 1.6±3.4, P=0.02) with no alterations in total or abdominal fat mass. PTH increased with DHEA, but no significant changes were observed in other bone markers or in bone mineral content. The mRNA levels of markers of tissue inflammation (adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α) in fat and muscle tissue were unaffected by DHEA treatment, as was indirect calorimetry and maximal oxygen uptake. A high proportion of self-reported seborrheic side effects were recorded (60%).

Conclusion

In female adrenal failure, normalization of androgens with DHEA 50 mg for 6 months had no effects on muscle, fat, and bone tissue and on fuel metabolism in this small study. A small increase in LBM was observed. Treatment was associated with a high frequency of side effects.

Free access

Nicoleta C Olarescu, Thor Ueland, Kristin Godang, Rune Lindberg-Larsen, Jens Otto L Jørgensen and Jens Bollerslev

Background

Active acromegaly is associated with insulin resistance, but it is uncertain whether inflammation in adipose tissue is a contributing factor.

Aim

To test if GH/IGF1 promotes inflammation in adipocytes, and if this is relevant for systemic insulin resistance in acromegaly. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of treatment modalities (transsphenoidal surgery (TS), somatostatin analogs (SAs), and pegvisomant (PGV)) on glucose metabolism and inflammatory biomarkers in acromegaly.

Methods

The in vitro effects of GH/IGF1 on gene expression of adipokines in human adipocytes were investigated. Body composition, glucose metabolism, and circulating adipokines (adiponectin (AD), high-molecular weight AD (HMWAD), leptin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), and thioredoxin (TRX)) were measured in 37 patients with active acromegaly before and after treatment.

Results

In vitro GH, but not IGF1, increased VEGF and MCP1 in human adipocytes. In all treatment groups, body fat increased and IGF1 decreased to the same extent. Fasting glucose decreased in the TS (P=0.016) and PGV (P=0.042) groups, but tended to increase in the SA group (P=0.078). Insulin and HOMA-IR decreased in both TS and SA groups, while the PGV group showed no changes. Serum VEGF and MCP1 decreased significantly in the TS group only (P=0.010, P=0.002), while HMWAD increased with PGV treatment only (P=0.018). A multivariate analysis model identified the changes in GH and VEGF as predictors of improvement in HOMA-IR after treatment (R 2=0.39, P=0.002).

Conclusions

i) GH directly promotes inflammation of human adipocytes by increasing VEGF and MCP1 levels; ii) glucose metabolism and inflammation (VEGF and MCP1) improve to some extent after treatment, despite an increase in adipose tissue mass; and iii) the decrease in insulin resistance after therapy in acromegaly depends, to some extent, on treatment modalities.

Restricted access

Jens Otto L. Jørgensen, Werner F. Blum, Niels Møller, Michael B. Ranke and Jens S. Christiansen

Abstract.

Knowledge of the circadian patterns of serum IGF-I I and the large molecular weight IGF binding protein, IGFBP-3 might, apart from its physiological relevance, be of clinical interest, inasmuch as measurements of these parameters are being introduced into the evaluation of GH deficiency. We therefore evaluated the 24-h (08.00-08.00 h) patterns of serum IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in 8 GH-deficient patients who were studied during three periods when receiving 1. GH (2 IU) at 20.00 h; 2. GH (2 IU) at 08.00 h and 3. no GH. For comparison, 10 age- and sex-matched untreated healthy subjects were studied once under similar conditions. The serum IGF-II levels of the patients were relatively stable over the 24-h periods, yielding mean levels which were significantly lower during no GH: 553±78 (evening GH), 554±54 (morning GH), and 429±65 μg/l (no GH). The mean IGF-II level in the normal subjects was 635±29 μg/l, which was significantly higher than in either patient study. Similarly, stable 24-h levels of IGFBP-3 were recorded in all studies. The mean IGFBP-3 level of the patients was significantly lower when they received no GH, and the mean level in the healthy subjects was higher than in any of the patient studies: 1853±301 (no GH), 2755 ± 317 (evening GH), 2904±269 (morning GH), and 3856±186 μg/l (healthy subjects). However, minute but significant changes over time, characterised by slight decrements at night, were observed for both parameters in several of the studies. Nevertheless, since both IGF-II and IGFBP-3 display rather stable 24-h levels in the individual, it is concluded that measurements of these parameters in evaluation of growth retardation can be based on a single daytime sample.

Restricted access

Kristina Laugesen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Irene Petersen and Henrik Toft Sørensen

Objective

Glucocorticoid treatment of inflammatory disorders is associated with significant adverse effects related to glucocorticoid excess as well as adrenal insufficiency. This necessitates awareness of its use. We therefore investigated trends in systemic glucocorticoid use as well as morbidity and comedications among users.

Design

Cross-sectional drug utilisation study.

Methods

We conducted a population-based study of 926,314 users of systemic glucocorticoids (oral and injectable formulations) from 1999 to 2014 using Danish nationwide registries. We computed annual prevalence and incidence of systemic glucocorticoid use and prevalence of comedications and morbidity. Further, we assessed the annual amount of disease-modifying drug use.

Results

Of the 926,314 users of systemic glucocorticoids, 54% were female and median age at first-time use was 55 years. The annual prevalence was ≈ 3%, while the incidence was ≈ 1.4/100 person years (p-y). Both figures remained constant from 1999 to 2014. In the elderly, the annual prevalence was 6.7–7.7% (60–79 years of age) and 9.7–11% (≥80 years of age). Incidence increased among persons aged ≥80 years from 3.0/100 p-y in 1999 to 3.6/100 p-y in 2014. Concomitantly, the annual amount of for example methotrexate, azathioprine and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha agents increased and new biological agents emerged. The most frequent comedications were antibiotics (49%), cardiovascular drugs (38%) and NSAIDs (37%).

Conclusions

Our findings confirm a widespread use of systemic glucocorticoids, especially in the elderly, which prevails despite increased use of disease-modifying drugs. The continuously prevalent use of glucocorticoid use constitutes a challenge for the endocrine community.

Free access

Kristine Z Rubeck, Michael Madsen, Caroline Marie Andreasen, Sanne Fisker, Jan Frystyk and Jens Otto L Jørgensen

Context

Control of disease activity in acromegaly is critical, but the biochemical definitions remain controversial.

Objective

To compare traditional and novel biomarkers and health status in patients with acromegaly treated with either surgery alone or somatostatin analog (SA).

Design and methods

Sixty-three patients in long-term remission based on normalized total IGF1 levels after surgery alone (n=36) or SA (n=27) were studied in a cross-sectional manner. The groups were comparable at diagnosis regarding demographic and biochemical variables. Each subject underwent 3 h of serum sampling including a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Health status was measured by two questionnaires: EuroQoL and Acrostudy (Patient-assessed-Acromegaly symptom questionnaire (PASQ)).

Results

Total and bioactive IGF1 (μg/l) levels were similar (total: 185±10 (SA) versus 171±8 (surgery) (P=0.28); bioactive: 1.9±0.2 vs 1.9±0.1 (P=0.70)). Suppression of total and free GH (μg/l) during OGTT was blunted in the SA group (total GHnadir: 0.59±0.08 (SA) versus 0.34±0.06 (surgery) (P=0.01); free GHnadir: 0.43±0.06 vs 0.19±0.04 (P<0.01)). The insulin response to OGTT was delayed, and the 2-h glucose level was elevated during SA treatment (P=0.02). Disease-specific health status was better in patients after surgery (P=0.02).

Conclusions

i) Despite similar and normalized IGF1 levels, SA treatment compared with surgery alone was associated with less suppressed GH levels and less symptom relief; ii) this discordance may be due to specific suppression of hepatic IGF1 production by SA; iii) we suggest that biochemical assessment during SA treatment should include both GH and IGF1.

Free access

Charlotte Steffensen, Alberto M Pereira, Olaf M Dekkers and Jens Otto L Jørgensen

Objective

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Cushing’s syndrome (CS) share clinical characteristics, and several small studies have recorded a high prevalence of hypercortisolism in T2D, which could have therapeutic implications. We aimed to assess the prevalence of endogenous hypercortisolism in T2D patients.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

Methods

A search was performed in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for original articles assessing the prevalence of endogenous hypercortisolism and CS in T2D. Data were pooled in a random-effect logistic regression model and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results

Fourteen articles were included, with a total of 2827 T2D patients. The pooled prevalence of hypercortisolism and CS was 3.4% (95% CI: 1.5–5.9) and 1.4% (95 CI: 0.4–2.9) respectively. The prevalence did not differ between studies of unselected patients and patients selected based on the presence of metabolic features such as obesity or poor glycemic control (P = 0.41 from meta-regression). Imaging in patients with hypercortisolism (n = 102) revealed adrenal tumors and pituitary tumors in 52 and 14% respectively.

Conclusions

Endogenous hypercortisolism is a relatively frequent finding in T2D, which may have therapeutic implications.

Free access

Lars C Gormsen, Jakob Gjedsted, Signe Gjedde, Esben Thyssen Vestergaard, Jens S Christiansen, Jens Otto Jørgensen, Søren Nielsen and Niels Møller

Objective: Concentrations of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin is affected by a number of hormones, which also affect circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). The present study was therefore designed to determine the direct effect of FFAs on circulating ghrelin.

Design: Eight lean, healthy men were examined for 8 h on four occasions using variable infusion rates (0, 3, 6 and 12 μl/kg per min) of intralipid to create different plasma FFA concentrations. Constant levels of insulin and GH were obtained by administration of acipimox (250 mg) and somatostatin (300 μg/h). At the end of each study day a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was performed.

Results: Four distinct levels of FFAs were obtained at the end of the lipid infusion period (FFALIPID: 0.03 ± 0.00 vs: 0.49 ± 0.04, 0.92 ± 0.08 and 2.09 ± 0.38 mmol/l; ANOVA P < 0.0001) and during hyperinsulinaemia (FFALIPID+INSULIN: 0.02 ± 0.00 vs: 0.34 ± 0.03, 0.68 ± 0.09 and 1.78 ± 0.32 mmol/l; ANOVA P < 0.0001). Whereas, somatostatin infusion alone reduced ghrelin concentration by ~67%, concomitant administration of increasing amounts of intralipid reduced circulating ghrelin by a further 14, 19 and 19% respectively (change in ghrelin: 0.52 ± 0.05 vs: 0.62 ± 0.06, 0.72 ± 0.09 and 0.71 ± 0.05 μg/l; ANOVA P = 0.04). No further reduction in ghrelin concentration was observed during hyperinsulinaemia.

Conclusion: FFA exposure between 0 and 1 mmol/l significantly suppresses ghrelin levels independent of ambient GH and insulin levels.

Free access

Poul Frølund Vestergaard, Mette Hansen, Jan Frystyk, Ulrick Espelund, Jens S Christiansen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen and Sanne Fisker

Objective

Senescent changes in body composition and muscle strength are accompanied by reduced production of GH and IGF1, but the causal relationship remains elusive. We speculate that serum bioactive IGF1, measured by the IGF1 kinase receptor activation assay, is closer related to human physiological ageing than total IGF1 measured by immunoassay.

Design

We conducted a cross-sectional study in 150 adult males and females, between 20 and 70 years. After an overnight fasting, serum levels of bioactive IGF1, total IGF1 and IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and IGFBP3 were assessed. Furthermore, body composition and muscle strength was measured.

Results

Total IGF1 levels were higher in females (P=0.048). Bioactive IGF1 were identical in males and females (P=0.31), decreasing with age. Total IGF1 tended to decrease more with age compared with bioactive IGF1 (−1.48 vs −0.89 percent/year, P=0.052). Total body fat (TBF) was lower and BMI was higher in males (P<0.001 and P=0.005), and both increased with age. Knee extension and elbow flexion force were higher in males (P=0.001 and P=0.001), but decreased with age in both genders.

 Total but not bioactive IGF1 was positively correlated to TBF, knee extension and muscle function in males. In multiple linear regression, only age predicted total IGF1, whereas age and IGFBP1 predicted bioactive IGF1.

Conclusions

Bioactive IGF1 tends to decrease to a lesser extent than total IGF1 with age and was not correlated with measures of body composition or muscle strength. Therefore, levels of circulating bioactive IGF1 does not appear to be a better biomarker of physiological ageing than total IGF1.

Free access

Jens Juel Christiansen, Claus Højbjerg Gravholt, Sanne Fisker, Niels Møller, Marianne Andersen, Birgit Svenstrup, Paul Bennett, Per Ivarsen, Jens Sandahl Christiansen and Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen

Objective: In female adrenal insufficiency, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion is impaired and circulating androgen levels are severely reduced. We wanted to analyse the acute effects of physiological DHEA substitution on substrate metabolism.

Design: We studied nine females with adrenal insufficiency after 9 days of oral DHEA replacement (50 mg/day) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

Methods: Whole body and regional substrate metabolism was assayed in the basal state and during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp by means of isotope dilution techniques (glucose, phenyl-alanine, tyrosine), indirect calorimetry and in situ lipolysis (microdialysis technique).

Results: DHEA treatment normalized the levels of all androgens. Basal and insulin-stimulated total energy expenditure and rates of protein, lipid and glucose oxidation were unaffected by DHEA. Whole body turnover of glucose and protein were also unaffected by DHEA. Forearm breakdown of protein was reduced by insulin to the same extent after placebo and DHEA. Insulin sensitivity as expressed by the glucose infusion rate during the euglycemic clamp was similar after placebo and DHEA. Finally, the interstitial release of glycerol in adipose tissue was not significantly influenced by DHEA.

Conclusions: Short-term oral DHEA replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency was not associated with measurable changes in total or regional substrate metabolism.